I'm a bit of a fishing nut (although I only fish fresh water - because of motion sickness on big water).
Generally I fish for Bass (Largemouth and Smallmouth), Walleye, Muskie and Northern Pike.
Its tough to really tell you about fishing if you are in NYC. Either you get out on a charter on hit the big water or you get to NJ, CT or upstate NY for some fresh water fishing. As for fishing techniques... it all depends what your fishing for, but I'll give you some guidelines.
Bass (largemouth and small): Early in the morning, when the water is very still, I like to use a top water bait (lure). Something like a "popper" or "torpedo". Cast, let the bait sit on top of the water, give it a small jerk, than real it two or three times. Let the bait sit still for a second or two. It's in those "still" moments that a bass will hit it.
Also, always fish for bass in cover. Hydrilla, lilly pads, stumps... you name it. NEVER off of a sandy bottom.
Miday, I like using a crank bait or a spinner bait. Cast and real and try to cover a lot of water.
Dusk: Back to topwater.
Walleye: Deep diving crankbaits, slow retrieve on the cast.
Muskie: Only way to catch a decent Muskie is trolling at a high speed with pretty heavy equipment. I've caught a 46" Muskie (which isn't that big for a Muskie), so be prepared for a monster.
However, having said all of this, my favorite bait is a 4 inch floating Rapala which is orange in color. It truly is deadly and what I catch most of my fish on. You've got to crank it pretty fast, but it really gets the job done.