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Author Topic: Augustine's City of God  (Read 1195 times) Average Rating: 0
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Justin Kissel
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« on: October 19, 2005, 12:36:40 AM »

Tonight I was reading a chapter of City of God by Blessed Augustine, and was astonished by how many different (and controversial) subjects he touched upon. Purgatory, indulgences, intercession of the saints, degrees of sin, universalism, absuing confession, almsgiving, good-will/grace, and many others were mentioned. What an interesting read!

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It remains to reply to those who maintain that those only shall burn in eternal fire who neglect alms-deeds proportioned to their sins, resting this opinion on the words of the Apostle James, "He shall have judgment without mercy that hath showed no mercy." Therefore, they say, he that hath showed mercy, though he has not reformed his dissolute conduct, but has lived wickedly and iniquitously even while abounding in alms, shall have a merciful judgment, so that he shall either be not condemned at all, or shall be delivered from final judgment after a time. And for the same reason they suppose that Christ will discriminate between those on the right hand and those on the left, and will send the one party into His kingdom, the other into eternal punishment, on the sole ground of their attention to or neglect of works of charity. Moreover, they endeavor to use the prayer which the Lord Himself taught as a proof and bulwark of their opinion, that daily sins which are never abandoned can be expiated through alms-deeds, no matter how offensive or of what sort they be. For, say they, as there is no day on which Christians ought not to use this prayer, so there is no sin of any kind which, though committed every day, is not remitted when we say, "Forgive us our debts," if we take care to fulfill what follows, "as we forgive our debtors." For, they go on to say, the Lord does not say, "If ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will forgive you your little daily sins," but "will forgive you your sins." Therefore, be they of any kind or magnitude whatever, be they perpetrated daily and never abandoned or subdued in this life, they can be pardoned, they presume, through alms-deeds.

But they are right to inculcate the giving of aims proportioned to past sins; for if they said that any kind of alms could obtain the divine pardon of great sins committed daily and with habitual enormity, if they said that such sins could thus be daily remitted, they would see that their doctrine was absurd and ridiculous. For they would thus be driven to acknowledge that it were possible for a very wealthy man to buy absolution from murders, adulteries, and all manner of wickedness, by paying a daily alms of ten paltry coins. And if it he most absurd and insane to make such an acknowledgment, and if we still ask what are those fitting alms of which even the forerunner of Christ said, "Bring forth therefore fruits meet for repentance," undoubtedly it will be found that they are not such as are done by men who undermine their life by daily enormities even to the very end. For they suppose that by giving to the poor a small fraction of the wealth they acquire by extortion' and spoliation they can propitiate Christ, so that they may with impunity commit the most damnable sins, in the persuasion that they have bought from Him a license to transgress, or rather do buy a daily indulgence. And if they for one crime have distributed all their goods to Christ's needy members, that could profit them nothing unless they desisted from all similar actions, and attained charity which worketh no evil He therefore who does alms-deeds proportioned to his sins must first begin with himself. For it is not reasonable that a man who exercises charity towards his neighbor should not do so towards himself, since he hears the Lord saying, "Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself," and again, "Have compassion on thy soul, and please God." He then who has not compassion on his own soul that he may please God, how can he be said to do alms-deeds proportioned to his sins? To the same purpose is that written, "He who is bad to himself, to whom can he be good?" We ought therefore to do alms that we may be heard when we pray that our past sins may be forgiven, not that while we continue in them we may think to provide ourselves with a license for wickedness by alms-deeds.

The reason, therefore, of our predicting that He will impute to those on His right hand the alms-deeds they have done, and charge those on His left with omitting the same, is that He may thus show the efficacy of charity for the deletion of past sins, not for impunity in their perpetual commission. And such persons, indeed, as decline to abandon their evil habits of life for a better course cannot be said to do charitable deeds. For this is the purport of the saying, "Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these, ye did it not to me." He shows them that they do not perform charitable actions even when they think they are doing so. For if they gave bread to a hungering Christian because he is a Christian, assuredly they would not deny to themselves the bread of righteousness, that is, Christ Himself; for God considers not the person to whom the gift is made, but the spirit in which it is made. He therefore who loves Christ in a Christian extends alms to him in the same spirit in which he draws near to Christ, not in that spirit which would abandon Christ if it could do so with impunity. For in proportion as a man loves what Christ disapproves does he himself abandon Christ. For what does it profit a man that he is baptized, if he is not justified? Did not He who said, "Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he shall not enter into the kingdom of God," say also, "Except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven?" Why do many through fear of the first saying run to baptism, while few through fear of the second seek to be justified? As therefore it is not to his brother a man says, "Thou fool," if when he says it he is indignant not at the brotherhood, but at the sin of the offender,-for otherwise he were guilty of hell fire,-so he who extends charity to a Christian does not extend it to a Christian if he does not love Christ in him. Now he does not love Christ who refuses to be justified in Him. Or, again, if a man has been guilty of this sin of calling his brother Fool, unjustly reviling him without any desire to remove his sin, his alms-deeds go a small way towards expiating this fault, unless he adds to this the remedy of reconciliation which the same passage enjoins. For it is there said, "Therefore, if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath aught against thee; leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift." Just so it is a small matter to do alms-deeds, no matter how great they be, for any sin, so long as the offender continues in the practice of sin.

Then as to the daily prayer which the Lord Himself taught, and which is therefore called the Lord's prayer, it obliterates indeed the sins of the day, when day by day we say, "Forgive us our debts," and when we not only say but act out that which follows, "as we forgive our debtors;" but we utter this petition because sins have been committed, and not that they may be. For by it our Saviour designed to teach us that, however righteously we live in this life of infirmity and darkness, we still commit sins for the remission of which we ought to pray, while we must pardon those who sin against us that we ourselves also may be pardoned. The Lord then did not utter the words, "If ye forgive men their trespasses, your Father will also forgive you your trespasses," in order that we might contract from this petition such confidence as should enable us to sin securely from day to day, either putting ourselves above the fear of human laws, or craftily deceiving men concerning our conduct, but in order that we might thus learn not to suppose that we are without sins, even though we should be free from crimes; as also God admonished the priests of the old law to this same effect regarding their sacrifices, which He commanded them to offer first for their own sins, and then for the sins of the people. For even the very words of so great a Master and Lord are to be intently considered. For He does not say, If ye forgive men their sins, your Father will also forgive you your sins, no matter of what sort they be, but He says, your sins; for it was a daily prayer He was teaching, and it was certainly to disciples already justified He was speaking. What, then, does He mean by "your sins," but those sins from which not even you who are justified and sanctified can be free? While, then, those who seek occasion from this petition to indulge in habitual sin maintain that the Lord meant to include great sins, because He did not say, He will forgive you your small sins, but "your sins," we, on the other hand, taking into account the character of the persons He was addressing, cannot see our way to interpret the expression "your sins" of anything but small sins, because such persons are no longer guilty of great sins. Nevertheless not even great sins themselves-sins from which we must flee with a total reformation of life-are forgiven to those who pray, unless they observe the appended precept, "as ye also forgive your debtors." For if the very small sins which attach even to the life of the righteous be not remitted without that condition, how much further from obtaining indulgence shall those be who are involved in many great crimes, if, while they cease from perpetrating such enormities, they still inexorably refuse to remit any debt incurred to themselves, since the Lord says, "But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses?" For this is the purport of the saying of the Apostle James also, "He shall have judgment without mercy that hath showed no mercy." For we should remember that servant whose debt of ten thousand talents his lord cancelled, but afterwards ordered him to pay up, because the servant himself had no pity for his fellow-servant, who owed him an hundred pence. The words which the Apostle James subjoins,"And mercy rejoiceth against judgment," find their application among those who are the children of the promise and vessels of mercy. For even those righteous men, who have lived with such holiness that they receive into the eternal habitations others also who have won their friendship with the mammon of unrighteousness, became such only through the merciful deliverance of Him who justifies the ungodly, imputing to him a reward according to grace, not according to debt. For among this number is the apostle, who says, "I obtained mercy to be faithful."

But it must be admitted, that those who are thus received into the eternal habitations are not of such a character that their own life would suffice to rescue them without the aid of the saints, and consequently in their case especially does mercy rejoice against judgment. And yet we are not on this account to suppose that every abandoned profligate, who has made no amendment of his life, is to be received into the eternal habitations if only he has assisted the saints with the mammon of unrighteousness,-that is to say, with money or wealth which has been unjustly acquired, or, if rightfully acquired, is yet not the true riches, but only what iniquity counts riches, because it knows not the true riches in which those persons abound, who even receive others also into eternal habitations. There is then a certain kind of life, which is neither, on the one hand, so bad that those who adopt it are not helped towards the kingdom of heaven by any bountiful alms-giving by which they may relieve the wants of the saints, and make friends who could receive them into eternal habitations, nor, on the other hand, so good that it of itself suffices to win for them that great blessedness, if they do not obtain mercy through the merits of those whom they have made their friends. And I frequently wonder that even Virgil should give expression to this sentence of the Lord, in which He says, "Make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness, that they may receive you into everlasting habitations;" and this very similar saying, "He that receiveth a prophet, in the name of a prophet, shall receive a prophet's reward; and he that receiveth a righteous man, in the name of a righteous man, shall receive a righteous man's reward." For when that poet described the Elysian fields, in which they suppose that the souls of the blessed dwell, he placed there not only those who had been able by their own merit to reach that abode. but added.-

"And they who grateful memory wonBy services to others done;"

that is, they who had served others, and thereby merited to be remembered by them. Just as if they used the expression so common in Christian lips, where some humble person commends himself to one of the saints, and says, Remember me, and secures that he do so by deserving well at his hand. But what that kind of life we have been speaking of is, and what those sins are which prevent a man from winning the kingdom of God by himself, but yet permit him to avail himself of the merits of the saints, it is very difficult to ascertain, very perilous to define. For my own part, in spite of all investigation, I have been up to the present hour unable to discover this. And posssibly it is hidden from us, lest we should become careless in avoiding such sins, and so cease to make progress. For if it were known what these sins are which, though they continue, and be not abandoned for a higher life, do yet not prevent us from seeking and hoping for the intercession of the saints, human sloth would presumptuously wrap itself in these sins, and would take no steps to be disentangled from such wrappings by the deft energy of any virtue, but would only desire to be rescued by the merits of other people, whose friendship had been won by a bountiful use of the mammon of unrighteousness. But now that we are left in ignorance of the precise nature of that iniquity which is venial, even though it be persevered in, certainly we are both more vigilant in our prayers and efforts for progress, and more careful to secure with the mammon of unrighteousness friends for ourselves among the saints.

But this deliverance, which is effected by one's own prayers, or the intercession of holy men, secures that a man be not cast into eternal fire, but not that, when once he has been cast into it, he should after a time be rescued from it. For even those who fancy that what is said of the good ground bringing forth abundant fruit, some thirty, some sixty, some an hundred fold, is to be referred to the saints, so that in proportion to their merits some of them shall deliver thirty men, some sixty, some an hundred,-even those who maintain this are yet commonly inclined to suppose that this deliverance will take place at, and not after the day of judgment. Under this impression, some one who observed the unseemly folly with which men promise themselves impunity on the ground that all will be included in this method of deliverance, is reported to have very happily remarked, that we should rather endeavor to live so well that we shall be all found among the number of those who are to intercede for the liberation of others, lest these should be so few in number, that, after they have delivered one thirty, another sixty, another a hundred, there should still remain many who could not be delivered from punishment by their intercessions, and among them every one who has vainly and rashly promised himself the fruit of another's labor. But enough has been said in reply to those who acknowledge the authority of the same sacred Scriptures as ourselves, but who, by a mistaken interpretation of them, conceive of the future rather as they themselves wish, than as the Scriptures teach. And having given this reply, I now, according to promise, close this book. - Bl. Augustine, City of God, 21, 27
« Last Edit: October 19, 2005, 12:39:25 AM by Asteriktos » Logged

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« Reply #1 on: October 19, 2005, 11:53:03 AM »

If he a saint of our Orthodox church, how can he talk about indulgences and purgatory?? Perhaps later Western translations mistranslated his works...not trying to change the subject but dont we have a version of purgatory (ie toll houses) where your soul goes up to these "booths" and temptations and you have to try to fight these temptations as a final spiritual struggle before you continue on to be judged? And I was told by many that Blessed Seraphim Rose belived in toll houses.
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Justin Kissel
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« Reply #2 on: October 19, 2005, 12:03:05 PM »

Well, Bl. Augustine, like all saints, made mistakes. Also, regarding these subjects, he does not necessarily affirm the exact same thing that the RCC would later consider doctrine/dogma; what he says does lay an interesting foundation for what comes later, however.
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« Reply #3 on: October 19, 2005, 12:28:53 PM »

Also I think the big difference is the Orthodox church does allow for much diversity of thought and expression, so Bl. Augustine is still very Orthodox despite his expressions that differ from the other fathers.  The problem becomes when you take a lone Father and set him (almost alone) as the criterion of Orthodoxy - which eventually came to pass in the West. 

Blessed Augustine is particularly special to me as his writings set me on my "collision course" with Orthodoxy.  I was a jade and angry towards all religion young teenager when I on a whim checked out the confessions from the library (I still find random books on all sorts of topics to read - an interesting way to open the mind a little!).  The repentance and journey of the saint is what touched me and led me to take seriously the the Catholic Church in which I was semi- raised in.  From there I found Orthodoxy. 

I also like The City of God in general.  It has a lot of history packed into it, which makes it an interesting and worthwhile read.  Besides that it really expounds an Orthodox understanding of the Old Testament and connection between the righteous of the Old Testament and the New Testament saints. 

Sancte Augustini ora pro nobis! 
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« Reply #4 on: October 19, 2005, 12:54:16 PM »

Well, Bl. Augustine, like all saints, made mistakes. Also, regarding these subjects, he does not necessarily affirm the exact same thing that the RCC would later consider doctrine/dogma; what he says does lay an interesting foundation for what comes later, however.

He's probably rolling in his grave so to speak with what was done with some of his writings.  I found it interesting in a discussion on Orthodoxy vs Catholicism (on theological differences) that at the end of the western "Dark Ages", the RCC pretty much only had access to Augustine (since he wrote in Latin and they didn't read/write/speak Greek anymore).  Also, the finally discovered the old Greek philosophers, but latched on to Aristotle - but only had access to an Arabic version (so filtered through Islam).  Very interesting.
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« Reply #5 on: October 19, 2005, 08:26:40 PM »

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the RCC pretty much only had access to Augustine (since he wrote in Latin and they didn't read/write/speak Greek anymore).
 

I think that is slightly exagerated.  There existed translations or originals of Saints Ambrose of Milan, Hilary of Poitiers, Irenaeus of Lyons, Jerome, Saint John Cassian.  I also believe (but am not positive off the top of my head) that translations of Chrysostom and St. Basil existed as well.  But yes I would agree that the lack of scholarship and education in the West did play a pivotal role in their distortion of theology. 
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« Reply #6 on: October 19, 2005, 09:19:16 PM »

 

I think that is slightly exagerated.  There existed translations or originals of Saints Ambrose of Milan, Hilary of Poitiers, Irenaeus of Lyons, Jerome, Saint John Cassian.  I also believe (but am not positive off the top of my head) that translations of Chrysostom and St. Basil existed as well.  But yes I would agree that the lack of scholarship and education in the West did play a pivotal role in their distortion of theology. 

But were they obscure and harder to come by as oppsed to Augustine's?
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« Reply #7 on: October 20, 2005, 01:43:24 AM »

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ut were they obscure and harder to come by as oppsed to Augustine's?

That is almsot impossible to know the real answer.  But looking up at the shelf on my desk at lest 12 inches from the Nicene and Post Nicene series are the works of Bl. Augustine.  The only one who comes close in shear volume is St. John Chrysostomos.  Aquinas quotes a good variety of the Fathers in his works - but at least to me he never really taps into their spirit.  But back to St. Augustine.... his writtings had an answer to everything whereas other fathers weren't nearly so broad - so it was very easy to elavate him to the sort of Father of the fathers.  So I think a slow process (partially being caused by the complete political mayhem of the West as the empire began to crumble) of loosing nuance in Theology caused the elevation of Bl. Augustine to the universal father he was made into.  A lot of things were building up to the time of the schism and occuring around then in the West - changes in spirituality, monastic life undergoing some major changes etc. When theological schools really began to take off in the West in the 1200s they served very pragmatic purposes - to train Catholics to defeat heresy (hence the founding and flourishing of the Dominican Order at this time).  So (to ironicly oversimplify) I think simplicity became the rule - learn what was needed to defeat various heretical uprisings i.e dogmatics.  So I think all these factors worked together to create the West's post schism theological troubles. 
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