Author Topic: Why do we have so many anaphoras?  (Read 344 times)

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Offline Alpha60

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Why do we have so many anaphoras?
« on: May 19, 2018, 06:28:33 AM »
I know why the Coptic Church and the Armenian Church only have three and one, respectively, that being in the case of the former canonical legislarion to regulate worship and ensure Orthopraxis, and in the case of the latter, a mix of Byzantine and Latin influence, the latter propagating the idea that like in the Roman Rite, there should be one set of prayers for the Mass (and thus the other 13 Armenian anaphoras which survive in the liturgy, which included a version of the liturgy of St. Basil, fell out of use).

But why have the Syriac and Ethiopian churches managed to retain so many?  I am inclined to believe it is due to historic geographical diversity in the case of the Syriac church, since most of the anaphoras are relatively similiar; that of the Twelve Apostles is known to be of Antiochene origin, and was the basis for the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, a version of which we also posess; St. James is known to have been the preferred liturgy in Jerusalem via the Mystagogical Catecheses of St. Cyril of Jerusalem, and I suspect that our liturgy of St. Mark originates from the monastery of St. Mark in Jerusalem, which is why it differs from the Greek liturgy of the same name, which we also have, using its Coptic name (the Anaphora of St. Cyril), which perhaps originated at the famed Syrian Monastery in Egypt back when it was a predominantly Syriac Orthodox monastery operating within the Coptic Church.   Then, as Euchologions were passed around, multiple liturgies became known in multiple places, and this is why in some places the choice of Anaphora, like the choice of Husoyo prayers, is up to the priest, except where the Anaphora of St. James is prescribed.

Ethiopia remains a bit baffling however in that the variance between their anaphoras is much more pronounced; you have the ancient Anaphora of the Apostles, which is basically that of St. Hippolytus, and in its extreme simplicity the inspiration for Eucharistic Prayer no. 2 in the Novus Ordo Missae, and also now present in many Protestant service books, and then on the other end of the spectrum, the Anaphora of St. Mary, in which most of the prayers are directed to the Theotokos.  Also, the geography of Ethiopia is somewhat more compact than the vast, thinly populated expanses in Syria, Turkey, Iraq, Palestine, and elsewhere, in which Syriac Orthodox populations exist or existed in the past before the Genocide.

In the EO church, there was a prominent canonist who is quoted in the Pedalion, whose name escapes me, who insisted, wrongly I think, that the liturgies of St. James and St. Mark were illicit, but it seems likely that that idea, that only the liturgy of St. Basil, of St. John Chrysostom, and the Presanctified, were acceprable, propagated through various nomocanons and among various bishops, at the same time the old Cathedral Use of the Hagia Sophia and other great churches disappeared in favor of the  Typikon from the Studite and Sabaite monastic communities, as Turkocratia came into being.

However, it remains curious that two of our four surviving liturgical traditions in the Oriental Church preserved a large and diverse array of Anaphoras, when the other churches in the Levant moved towards standardization.  Thoughts?
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Offline MalpanaGiwargis

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Re: Why do we have so many anaphoras?
« Reply #1 on: May 19, 2018, 10:01:21 AM »
Have the Syriac churches really retained that many? I know there are dozens known to exist, but how many are in actual, regular use?
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Offline Alpha60

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Re: Why do we have so many anaphoras?
« Reply #2 on: May 19, 2018, 02:07:10 PM »
Have the Syriac churches really retained that many? I know there are dozens known to exist, but how many are in actual, regular use?

In the East Coast of the US, I am told four are in use, only because those four are apparently the only four that exisr in English, Syriac and Arabic, but the desire according to a hieromonk I spoke with in 2013 at the church convention in Anaheim is to phase out the use of Arabic in the US, and introduce more Syriac anaphoras.

The West Coast diocese uses only one, that of St. Dionysius bar Salibi, because it is the shortest, but modified with the institution narrative of St. James in an attempt to satisfy the canonical requirements concerning the use of the St. James liturgy (which I believe is the longest).  I am not a fan of this.

In the Levant I am told more of the 86 anaphoras we have are in common use.

Furthermore, the Maronites adopted several of our Anaphoras and restored some of their own when de Latinizing their rite post-Vatican II, so their English language missal has about 8 including the Signing of the Chalice, which they use on Good Friday.
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- The computer Alpha 60, from Alphaville (1964) by Jean Luc Godard, the obvious inspiration for HAL-9000 from 2001: A Space Odyssey. 

This signature is not intended to offend any user, nor the relatives of Discovery 1 deputy commander Dr. Frank Poole,  and crew members Dr. Victor Kaminsky, Dr. Jack Kimball, and Dr. Charles Hunter.

Offline RaphaCam

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Re: Why do we have so many anaphoras?
« Reply #3 on: May 19, 2018, 04:08:04 PM »
Reading a book you posted on Ge'ez Orthodox liturgics, I was under the impression that some anaphoras were minorly "restored" into use, since Emperor Haile Selassie ordered their compilation and publishing, but they are all traced back to a compilation by Yared.
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Offline Alpha60

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Re: Why do we have so many anaphoras?
« Reply #4 on: May 19, 2018, 07:28:20 PM »
Reading a book you posted on Ge'ez Orthodox liturgics, I was under the impression that some anaphoras were minorly "restored" into use, since Emperor Haile Selassie ordered their compilation and publishing, but they are all traced back to a compilation by Yared.

Which book was that?  Do you have a URL?
"It is logical that the actions of the human race over time will lead to its destruction.  I, Alpha 60, am merely the agent of this destruction."

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Offline RaphaCam

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Re: Why do we have so many anaphoras?
« Reply #5 on: May 19, 2018, 07:29:12 PM »
Reading a book you posted on Ge'ez Orthodox liturgics, I was under the impression that some anaphoras were minorly "restored" into use, since Emperor Haile Selassie ordered their compilation and publishing, but they are all traced back to a compilation by Yared.

Which book was that?  Do you have a URL?
The Liturgy of the Ethiopian Church. It's just the impression I got by readint the introduction.
"May the Lord our God remember in His kingdom all Holy Catholic Apostolic Church, which heralds the Word of Truth and fearlessly offers and distributes the Holy Oblation despite human deficiencies and persecutions moved by the powers of this world, in all time and unto the ages of ages."

May the Blessed Light shine Forth