I have seen some posts here scattered throughout the convert threads discussing the anguish that catechumens, inquirers, and Non-Orthodox visitors face when attending the Divine Liturgy since they are not allowed to receive Holy Communion.
Sometimes, the faithful also must refrain from receiving Holy Communion, especially women who have just recently born a child or those who have had a miscarriage and must wait the 40 days.
In addition, if we have had an argument with our spouse or parishioners and have not yet reconciled, then it is advised not to receive Holy Communion.
Finally, those who have recently divorced are told that they cannot receive Holy Communion until an Ecclesiastical Court or their Spiritual Father gives them permission.
What can people do who find themselves not able to receive Holy Communion?
When I was an Orthodox Catechumen, I learned to focus on the Holy Eucharist as the Priest was giving it to the parishioners. And I prayed, I realized that Christ was all around me, everywhere present, and sanctifying the faithful. From my Catholic background, I made a spiritual communion, asking the Lord to come into my heart, and make me worthy to receive Him, the King of Kings, into my very being. Feeling the love of the Lord all around me was awesome.
When I had a miscarriage, I used the opportunity to pray for my little one and asked the Lord to come and fill me with His Love that I felt all around me as the faithful received Holy Communion.
In addition, I joined my prayers with the holy Neo-Martyrs of Russia who persevered in prisons and in hiding places without the benefit of the Holy Mysteries. All they had was the Jesus Prayer, prayers that they had committed to memory, and hope in Christ Jesus, their Lord and God.