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« on: January 18, 2003, 12:11:17 PM »

The following is from the official history of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church:

http://stgeorgemission.org/FAQs.html#WHERE

I was wondering if this was accurate or if there is error in the form of propaganda as I have heard. If the later, could someone restate the incorrect paragraphs?
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« Reply #1 on: January 18, 2003, 12:58:59 PM »

[The Kyivan Church was challenged by the Protestant Reformation and the renewed Catholicism of that period and was also suffering a serious internal crisis. The Synod decided to pass under the jurisdiction of the see of Rome. The traditional Eastern rite of the Kyivan Church was preserved and its ethnic, cultural and ecclesial existence was guaranteed. This was confirmed at the Council of Brest in 1596, which is the beginning of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church as an institution.]



A more factual history of what transpired  regarding the 'Union of Brest'  and how it was accomplished -

Try 'The Orthodox Church In The History of Russia' by Dimitry Pospielovsky

Page 92-93 regarding the union -

{Note: This section deals with a second memorandum sent to the Pope on their conditions for submission to the Pope. The first memorandum (*) which consists of ten conditions was rejected by the pope. Rome ignored all these conditions, promising only that the metropolitan of Kiev would have full contol over the ancient Kiev Monastery of the Caves. The bishops responded by by drafting a second "Concilliar Address" to the pope, consisting of twenty six articles, which were delivered by the two bishops sent to Rome, Ipati-Potii of Vladimir-Volynsk, and Krill (Terletsky of Lutsk. The articles included both a confession of faith and a number of requests -

1. The Holy spirit proceeds from the Father THROUGH the Son
2. All Orthodox liturgies and other rites should remain unchanged
3. The Eurcharist is to continue to be distributed under both species, according to Orthodox tradition
4. No objection to purgatory, "but we want to be true to the teachings of the Church." The new calendar can be accepted but the Paschal cycle should remain untouched, as well as those Orthodox feasts which are absent from the Roman Church, e.g., Epiphany
6. The retention of married clergy
7. That only Russians or Greeks may be consecrated bishops (This reflects the fear that Poles might try and infiltrate the Church and gradually latinize and polonize it).
8 & 9: (Identical to the 8 &9 in the previous memo which dealt with equal rights & privileges with the Latin Rite Bishops ).
11. No Greek bishops to be allowed in the commonwealth's territory, and none of their bans are to be valid in the Commonwealth.
12 & 20: Defections to the Roman rite and transformation of Eastern churches into Latin-rite ones is forbidden
21. Colleges and brotherhoods, should they join the Unia, are to be subject to the bishops.
26. "Some of ours" have gone to Greece to report [on us] in order to be appointed to posts "superior to ours". Let the King of Poland prevent their re-entry into his domains.


[Caps are mine]

Uniate historians have claimed that this document had a theological character. But the only theology here relates to the FILLIOQUE and Purgatory, and on both issues the Bishops meekly agree to accept whatever the pope decides. Yet even this petition did not receive a proper response from the Vatican. After vainly waiting for it in Rome, the bishops were simply brought before the pope, were handed the Latin texts of the Latin episcopal oath, which they were made to pronounce WHILE KNEELING BEFORE THE POPE.
Then, after reciting the Creed WITH THE FILLIOQUE, they were reconsecrated by the pope AS ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOPS pure and simple. The confession of faith included in the oath AFFIRMED THAT ONLY THE ROMAN CHURCH POSSESSED THE FULLNESS OF TRUTH, AND THAT THEY ACCEPT ALL THE TRADITIONS, RITES, AND SACRAMENTS OF THE ROMAN CHURCH. Only a month later, in January 1596, the pope magnanimously handed the bishops a short statute for the Uniate Church, permitting it to retain those of their traditions and rites WHICH DID NOT CONTRADICT THE TEACHINGS OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. ALL THE OTHER DEMANDS MADE IN THE TWO MEMORANDA - SUCH AS AUTOMONY, THE ELECTION OF BISHOPS, ETC. - WERE TOTALLY IGNORED BY THE POPE. Ipati and Krill then returned to the Commonwealth as bishops of the eastern rite, but with no guarantee that that rite would be respected or retained.

In fact, the laity, the parish clergy, and particularly the brotherhoods refused to accept the union with Rome. The protest movement developed and spread quickly, joined at first by a single bishop, Gideon (Boloban) of Livov. The King gave in to these pressures and authorized the convening of a local council OF THOSE BISHOPS, CLERGY, AND LAITY OF THE ROMAN AND GREEK CHURCH WHO ACCEPTED THE PAPACY - i.e., THOSE WHO DID NOT ACCEPT THE COUNCIL WERE NOT INVITED.

The council met in the city of Brest on October 6, 1596. In order to prevent a parallel Orthodox council in any of the numerious Orthodox churches in the city, THE METROPOLITAN OF KIEV SEALED ALL ORTHODOX CHURCHES ON THE DAY BEFORE THE COUNCIL WAS TO BEGIN, EXCEPT FOR THE CATHEDRAL WHERE THE COUNCIL WAS TO TAKE PLACE. The Orthodox, nevertheless, converged on Brest as well, with Prince Ostrozhskii and his private army at the head. Failing to find an open church, and after waiting in vain for an invitation from the Uniates, they accepted an offer of a Protestant church school hall for a separate Orthodox Council. The Uniate Council passed a resolution excommunicating all the Orthodox clergy and laity participating in the Orthodox Council. The Orthodox in turn suspended all the clergy and lay participants in the Uniate Council and addressed a petition to the King, asking him to deprive "the traitors" of their dioceses and parishes. But the King decided otherwise: his edict of October 15 legalized only those Byzantine-rite Christians who joined the Unia; IT DECREED THE ORTHODOX CHURCH NULL AND VOID AND ALL IT'S CLERGY EXCOMMUNCATED; WHILE CONTINUING MEMBERSHIP IN THE ORTHODOX CHURCH WAS DECLARED TO BE AN ACT OF TREASON AGAINST THE STATE.

(*) The ten conditions contained in the FIRST memorandum sent to the pope and rejected by the pope -

1. The inviolability of the Eastern rites and traditions
2. Then inviolability of monastic properties, episcopal cathedrals, and of hierachical subordination of the priests to their Orthodox (sic!) bishops
3. The inviolability of the liturgical ordo and of the Julian Calendar
4. Due honor rendered [to the bishops] in the diet seats of the senate
7. The abolition of the brotherhoods' immunity, granted to them by the Eastern patriarchs, because allegedly, the brotherhoods have become sources of sectarianism
8. The consecration of Russian bishops only by the Metropolitan of Kiev, who is to be elected, as now, by councils of West-Russian bishops and only confirmed by the pope
9. & 10. THE CONFIRMATION OF THESE ARTICLES BY BOTH THE POPE AND THE POLISH KING, so that the Russian bishops may have the same rights and privileges as those enjoyed by Latin-rite bishops.

Note the point regarding the brotherhoods. Clearly, their independence was one of the incentives for the appeal to Rome: the West-Russian bishops wanted to have the same power over their flock and clergy as that enjoyed by their Latin confreres. Surprisingly, the document totally ignores the doctrinal differences between the two churches. The bishops were concerned only with their own privileges and with the ritual.

As stated above, Rome ignored all these conditions, promising only that the metropolitan of Kiev would have full control over the ancient Kiev Monastery of the Caves. So the second memorandum was drawn up.

To be contd. with the contents of the 'Union of Brest'

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« Reply #2 on: January 18, 2003, 01:14:09 PM »


Union of Brest -

Contents of the 'Union of Brest'.  {Note:  All one has to do is read through these articles and ask themselves why they were so important as to be written and quaranteed before a union could be signed. If the union was a result of desire to be united with Rome as we are asked to believe, and the  reasons for the union were as stated in the website, why would they be asking for such articles as (see Part III) 12, 17, 21-25, 27 to name a few.  Obviously under Roman Catholic domination they had lost their basic human rights as Orthodox Catholics.}


Treaty of Brest--1596
Articles Concerning Union With the Roman Church

[The articles frequently refer to the King of Poland.  The function of the King of Poland vis-a-vis the Greek-Catholic Church were assumed by the Austrian Emperor.  As there is no longer a King of Emperor, and the Greek-Catholic Church is certainly not state-supported in Ukraine, these functions revert to the synod or lapse entirely.]

Articles Concerning Union With The Roman Church

We require prior gaurantees of these articles from the Romans
before we enter into union with the Roman Church.

1.  Since there is a quarrel between the Romans and Greeks about the
procession of the Holy Spirit, which greatly impede unity really for no
other reason than that we do not wish to understand one another--we ask that we should not be compelled to any other creed but that we should remain with that which was handed down to us in the Holy Scriptures, in the Gospel, and in the writings of the holy Greek Doctors, that is, that the Holy Spirit proceeds, not from two sources and not by a double procession, but from one orgin, from the Father through the Son.


2.  That the divine worship and all prayers and services of Orthros, Vespers, and the night services shall remain intact (without any change at all) for us according to the ancient custom of the Eastern Church, namely:  the Holy Liturgies of which there are three, that of Saint Basil, that of Saint Chrysostom, and that of Epiphanius which is served during the Great Lent with Presancitified Gifts, and all other ceremonies and services of our Church, as we have had them until now, for in Rome these same services are kept within the obedience of the Supreme Pontiff, and that these services should be in our own language.

3.  That the Mysteries of the Most Holy Body and Blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ should be retained entirely as we have been accustomed until now, under the species of bread and wine; that this should remain among us enternally the same and unchangeable.

4. That the Mystery of Holy Baptism and its form should remain among us
unchanged as we have served it until now, without anny addition.

5.  We shall not debate about purgatory, but we entrust ourselves to the
teaching of the Holy Church.

6.  We will accept the new calendar, if the old one cannot be, but withoutany violation of the Paschalia [the Easter cycle] and our other feasts as they were in the time of unity, because we have some special feasts which the
Romans do not have; on the sixth of January we celebrate the memory of the Baptism of the Lord Christ and the first revelation of the One God in
Trinity.  We call this feast Theophany, and on this day we have a special service of the Blessing of Waters.

7.  That we should not be compelled to take part in processions on the day of Corpus Christi--that we should not have to make such processions with our Mysteries inasmuch as our use of the Mysteries is different.

8.  Likewise that we should not be compelled to have the blessing of fire,
the use of wooden clappers, and similar ceremonies before Easter, for we have not had such ceremonies in our Chruch until now, but that
we should maintain our ceremonies according to the rubrics and the Typicon of our Church.

9.  That the marriages of priests remain intact, except for bigamists.

10.  That the metropolitanate, the episcopate, and other ecclesiasticl
dignities shall be conferred on no one except the Rus' people or Greeks, who must be of our religion.  And since our Cannons require that theMetropolitain, the Bishops, and so on, first elected by the clergy, must be worthy people, we as the King's Grace that the election be free, leaving
intact the authority of the King's Grace to appoint the one whom he pleases. This means that as soon as someone has died we would elect four candidates, and the King's Grace will freely chose whom he wishes from among the four. This is necessary, especially so that the persons named to such positions will be worthy and educated, for the King's Grace, who not of the same religion, cannot know who is worthy of this, and thus it has happened that such uninstructed people were appointed that they were scarcely literate.  If the King's Grace should wish to appoint a layman to these spiristual posts, the appointee must receive Holy Orders within no more than three months under pain of losing appointment, according to the Constitution of the Parliament of Grondo and the Articles of King Sigmund Augustus of blessed memory, approved by the present King's Grace, for at the moment there are some who hold certain spiritual appointments in their hands but do not receive Holy Orders even for years, justifying themselves with some sort of royal "exemptions".  We ask that in future this shold not be.

11.  That our Bishops should not send to Rome for the sacrae (permission to consecrate), but, if the King's Grace names someone to bishopric, thataccording to the old custom the Archibishop-Metropolitan shold have the duty and the right to ordain him.  The Metropolitan himself, before entering upon the office of metropolitain, should send the sacrae to the Pope.  Then, after he has received the sacrae from Rome, let the bishops ordain him, at least two ot them according to their custom.  If a bishop is elected Metropolitain, let him not send for the sacrae, because he already has the episcopal cheirotonia; he may take an oath of obedience to the Supreme Pontiff in thepresence of the Archbiship of Gniezno (who on that occasion will not be functiong as Archbishop, but as Primate of Poland).

======

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« Reply #3 on: January 18, 2003, 01:18:50 PM »

12.  So that our authority whould be greater and we should govern our
faithful with greater respect, we ask seats in the Senate of the King's Grace for the Metropolitain and the bishops.  We ask this for many reasons for we have the same office and hierarchal dinity as the Roman Bishops.

13.  And if in time the Lord shall grant that the rest of the brethren of our
people and of the Greek Religion shall come to this same holy unity, it shall not be held against us or begrudged to us that we have proceeded them in this unity, for we have to do this for definite, serious reasons for harmony in theChristian republic [Poland] to avoid further confusion and discord.

14.  Most important of all, it is necessary that if in our dioceses prebysters-Archimandrates, Hegumenoi, presbyters, and other clergy, but
expecially foreigners, even bishops and monks who might come from Greece--of our Religion should not with to be under our obedience they should never dare to perform any divine service.  For is that were allowed then there would never be any order.

15.  If in the future someone of our Religion should want to join the Roman
Church, denying his own Religion and Ceremonies, let him not be accepted,
since he is degrading the Cermonies of the one Church of God, since, being already in one Church, we shall have one Pope 16.  That marriages may freely take place between the Roman faithful and the Rus' faithful, without any compulsion as to Religion, for both are already
one Church.

17.  Inasmuch as we have lost the possession of many ecclesiastical
properties, some of which our predecessors alienated by rights other than the free administration of these goods during their personal lives, so that we find ourselves in such want and poverty that we cannot provide satisfactorily for the needs of the churches, and indeed we ourselves scarcely have the means of subsisitence, we require that these properties be returned to our churches.  If anyone has legitimately aquired the lifetime unsufruct of any ecclesiastical benefice, let him be obliged to pay an annual rent to the Church, and upon his death let the benefice revert to the Church.  Such a benefice shalll not be granted to anyone without the consent of the bishop and his chapter.  Every benefice to which the Church presently has title is to be recorded in the Gospel Books, even if the Church does not exercise any control over some benefices.  In that way they will at least belong indisputable to the Church.  With this accomplished, the Church can then undertake to regain those benefices which have been alienated at an earlier time.

18.  Upon the death of the Metropolitain or of a bishop, the wardens and
state treasurer shall not interfere in the ecclesiastical properties.  As is
the custom and tradition of the Roman Church, these properties shall be
administered by the chapter until a new Metropolitain or bishop is elected.
While this is already gauranteed to us by our privilege, we ask that it be
incorporated into the constitution of the kingdom.

19.  The Archimandrates, Hegumenoi, monks and their monasteries, according tothe old custom shall be under the obedience of the bishops of their dioceses, for among us there is only one monastic Rule, which even the bishops use, and we do not have a "Provincial".  

20.  That at the tribunal among the Roman Clergy we also should have two of our [clergy] to look after the affairs of our Church.

21.  That the archimandrates, hegumenoi, priests, archdeacons, and our other clergy be held in the same esteem as the Roman clergy, and should enjoy and make use of the same liberties and privileges which were granted by King Ladislaus; they should be exempt from all taxation, both personal and concerning ecclesiastical property, in contrast to the unjust practice which was hitherto obtained--if they possess some private properties then they should pay taxes on them, whatever is just, as
other proprietors do.  Any priest and other clergy who possesses ecclesiastical properties within the territories of the senators and nobility are subject to them and must obey them: they should not appeal to the courts or enter into quarrels with the landlords, but must acknowledge the right of patronage.  But accusations regarding the person of the clergy and their spiritual functions, are subject only to the bishop, and the misdemenours of the clergy shall be punished exclusively by the bishop on the complaints of the landlord.  Thus everyone, clergy and laity, will have their rights preserved whole and inviolate.

22.  That the Romans should not forbid us to ring bells in our churches on
Good Friday, both in the cities and everywhere else.

23.  That we should not be forbidden to visit the sick with the Most Holy
Mysteries, publicly, with the lights and vestments, according to our rubrics.

24.  That without any interference we might be free to hold processions, as many as are required, on holdy days, according to our custom.

25.  That our Rus' monasteries and churches should not be changed into Roman Catholic churches.  And if any Roman Catholic has damaged or destroyed one of our churches or monasteries, in his territory, he shall be obliged to repair it or build a new one for the exclusive use of the Rus' people.

26.  The spiritual Church Brotherhoods whish have recently been errected by the Patriarchs and confirmed by the King's Grace--for example, those in
L'viv, in Brest, in Vilnius, and elsewhere--in which we see great benefit for the Church of God and the culltivation of divine worship if they wish to abide in this unity, shall be maintained in all their integrity under the obedience of their Metropolitain and of the bishops in whose dioceses they function and to whom each of them is properly ascribed.

27.  That we shall be free to have schools and seminaries in the Greek and
Church-Slavonic languages in the localities where it is most convenient, and that our printing-presses shall be free (of course under the supervision of the Metropolitain and bishops, so that no heresies be propagated and nothing be printed without the knowledge and consent of the Metropolitain and bishops.)

====

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« Reply #4 on: January 18, 2003, 01:21:07 PM »

28.  Since there have been great abuses and disobedience on the part of some priests in the dominions of the King's Grace as well as in the lands of the lords and magnates, so that these priests have obtained the protection of the landlords and magnates for their abuses, dissolving marriages, so that the wardens and other officials profit to some extent by the fees from these divorces and therefore shield these priests, not permitting the bishops and the synod to summon such wayward clerics, abusing and even beating our visitators, we request that such abuses should cease, and that we would be free to correct the waward and keep order, and if someone should be excommunicated because of his disobedience or for and abuse, let the government and the lords, once they have been informed by the bishops or the visitator, not permit such excommunicated clergy to perform clerical functions or serve in the churches until they have been absolved by theirpastors from their faults.  This shall also be understood for archimandrates and hegumenoi and other ecclesiastics who are subject to the bishops and to
their authority.

29.  That the Cathedrals in the main cities and all the parich churches
everywhere in the dominions of the King's Grace, of every place and
jurisdiction, whether founded by the King, or by the city, or by the local
lord, shall be subject to the bishop and under his authorigy, and that laypeople shall not administer them under any pretext, for there are those who meddle against the obedience of the bishop, arranging matters as they wish and sho do not want to obey their bishops.  Let this not occur in the future.

30.  And if someone has been excommunicated by his bishops for any offence, let him not be received into the Roman Church but, on the contrary, let hisexcommunication be proclaimed there also.  And we shall do the same with regard to those excommunicated from the Roman Church, for this is a joint concern.

31.  And when the Lord God by His will and holy grace shall permit the rest
of our brothers of the Eastern Church of the Greek tradidtion to come to the holy unity with the Western Church, and later in this common union and by the permission of the Universal Church there should be any change in the ceremonies and Typicon of the Greek Church, we shall share all this as people of the same religion. .

32.  We have heard that some have departed for Greece to procure
ecclesiastical powers and return here to advise and influence the clergy and extend their jurisdiction over us.  We, therefore, request the King's Grace to order precautions to tbe taken on the state borders so that
anyone bearingsuch jurisdictions and excommunications be barred from entering the kingdom. Otherwise, grave misunderstandings could arise between the pastors and the flocks of the Church.  

33.  All these things, we the undersigned, desiring holy concord for the
praise of God's Name and for the peace of the Holy Church of Christ, we have given these articles which we consider neccessary for our Church and for which we require agreement in advance and gaurantees from the Holy Father the Pope and from the King's Grace, our merciful lord, for greatery security, wehave committed our Instructions to our Reverend brothers in God, father Hypatius Potij, the Protothrone, Bishop Volodymyr of Brest and Father Cyril Terletsky, Exarch and Bishop of Lutsk and Ostrih, so that in our name and in their own name they sould ask the Most Holy Father the Pope, and also the King's Grace, our merciful lord, to confirm and gaurantee beforehand all the articles which we have here given in writing, so that assured as to thefaith, the Mysteries, and our ceremonies, we might come to this holy accord with the Roman Church without any violation of our conscience and the flock of Christ committed unto us and likewise that others who are still...
hesitation, seeing that we retain everything inviolate, might more quickly
come after us to this holy union.

=======

Orthodoc


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« Reply #5 on: January 20, 2003, 12:11:55 AM »

Here's an interesting book I am reading now: "History of the Church in the Carpathian Rus" by Pekar.  It's slanted towards the BC position but is very interesting and full of facts.  If you read into what he's saying and read one of the books that is biased towards Orthodox then you can get a good idea of what actually happened, since both sides make such wild claims about the other.

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« Reply #6 on: January 23, 2003, 09:06:36 AM »

Here's an interesting book I am reading now: "History of the Church in the Carpathian Rus" by Pekar.  It's slanted towards the BC position but is very interesting and full of facts.  If you read into what he's saying and read one of the books that is biased towards Orthodox then you can get a good idea of what actually happened, since both sides make such wild claims about the other.

In Christ,

anastasios

anastasios, Athanasius Pekar's book, for all its good points, is not only slanted toward the BC position, it *IS* the BC position.  Pekar, is, after all, a BC priest "of the *Old* school."

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« Reply #7 on: January 28, 2003, 12:45:43 AM »


anastasios, Athanasius Pekar's book, for all its good points, is not only slanted toward the BC position, it *IS* the BC position.  Pekar, is, after all, a BC priest "of the *Old* school."

Hypo-Ortho

Yes, it is slanted, which is why I suggested it--it balances the slant in the other direction.  Pekar actually annoyed me several times by what he wrote and made me more desirous of being Orthodox, but it did make me abhor the evil that the MP participated in when the Greek Catholic Church was liquidated.

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