Would that person
who was present before the hypothetical brain damage be given a body in the general resurrection, existing alongside the person
after the injury?[/quote]
They're the same person by virtue of God relating to them that way. Persons are dynamic, constantly becoming; that is a characteristic of human Personhood. If persons couldn't fundamentally change, then we would not be capable of being saved.
That is an interesting distinction between Greek and Hebrew thought though. On a side note, do any of the fathers use the term soul in the Hebrew method you mentioned?
Well St. Paul uses a bit of both. He refers to our current bodies as "soulish bodies", and quotes Genesis, where Adam is made a living soul (nephesh). See 1 Corinthians 15 for more on this. At other times, he refers to "spirit, soul and body".
I think that many Fathers followed St. Paul's use of a bit of both Hebrew and Greek notions of the soul. Some used "soul" like "nous" or "mind", and some used "soul" to mean the characteristic of being alive, the "breath of life". You can see St. Irenaeus blends both ideas by insisting upon the necessity of both body and soul (whether mind or animating faculty) for human personhood.