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Author Topic: The tones of the exaposteilaria  (Read 608 times) Average Rating: 0
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genesisone
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« on: October 17, 2012, 08:43:28 AM »

I have noticed that some of the exaposteilaria at Orthros are in Tone 2 and others in Tone 3. I know the exaposteilaria for the Resurrection are Tone 2, but others seem randomly divided between the two tones. Is there a pattern that I'm not seeing?
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age234
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« Reply #1 on: October 17, 2012, 09:47:02 AM »

I don't know the theory behind selecting which tone to use, but you're correct, exapostilaria are always either Tone 2 or 3. These hymns are always sung to special melodies called prosomia, of which there are a number. If you are interested, you can see a bunch of the most common melodies here (Introduction and p.53ff.) and also here.

Unfortunately the "Nassar five pounder", the book of liturgical hymns used by the Antiochian Archdiocese, is not a metered translation. Thus the hymns cannot be easily chanted to the correct melody, since the words do not fit the notes.

The Holy Transfiguration Monastery menaion is metered however, and is a better text to use if chanters care to use the correct melodies. (Archbishop Joseph puts out his own weekly service texts that use the HTM translation so hymns can be chanted correctly.)
« Last Edit: October 17, 2012, 09:52:10 AM by age234 » Logged
arimethea
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« Reply #2 on: October 17, 2012, 10:27:12 AM »

I have noticed that some of the exaposteilaria at Orthros are in Tone 2 and others in Tone 3. I know the exaposteilaria for the Resurrection are Tone 2, but others seem randomly divided between the two tones. Is there a pattern that I'm not seeing?

The pattern is they are in Tone 2 unless they are indicated to be in Tone 3.
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« Reply #3 on: October 17, 2012, 10:59:02 AM »

Thanks for the help above. I do refer to Nassar and to Archbishop Joseph's site regularly. They are all helpful in many ways. I also refer to the HTM prosomia (yes, I have the CD). The SGPM PDF, which is new to me, will make interesting reading and likely be useful as well.

My problem, arimethea, is that often Nassar does not specify the tone, thus leading to Tone 2 in your observation, but then I discover that HTM specifies Tone 3. So what I think my question is trying to find out more of the theory behind these things rather than the practical help. I think I need a course (or at least a workshop) called "Exaposteilaria - Part II"  Cheesy.
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« Reply #4 on: October 17, 2012, 12:41:47 PM »

I thought if a (Greek) exapostilarion was in Tone 3, it was always the special melody "I see Thy bridal chamber."

Russian exapostilaria, however could be a couple other special melodies like "Hearken ye women."
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« Reply #5 on: October 17, 2012, 02:52:44 PM »

I thought if a (Greek) exapostilarion was in Tone 3, it was always the special melody "I see Thy bridal chamber."


The HTM prosomia (see source provided by age234) all resemble to some extent that melody but vary in length and have a few "twists and turns" to adjust to length. Of course it wouldn't surprise me if someone more knowledgeable than I could, from an authoritative source, that tell us that these HTM prosomia are merely derivatives of that melody  Wink.
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age234
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« Reply #6 on: October 17, 2012, 03:10:00 PM »

Russian exapostilaria, however could be a couple other special melodies like "Hearken ye women."

Most or all of the exapostilaria prosomia names exist in both traditions, although the actual music is very different since Russian music has evolved away from the original modal system. Which explains why I've noticed Russian rubrics only specify the name of the melody (not Tone 2 or 3).

The Byzantine melody for "Hearken ye women" is in that PDF I linked above (p.59). It is a Tone 2 prosomion.
« Last Edit: October 17, 2012, 03:26:50 PM by age234 » Logged
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« Reply #7 on: October 17, 2012, 03:31:20 PM »

The SGPM PDF, which is new to me, will make interesting reading and likely be useful as well.

Yeah, it has a lot more hymns than the HTM book, although there are minor musical differences between the two. The texts are different translations, and Fr. Seraphim Dedes often has rather colorful ways of phrasing things. I reference both if I ever have to set something to music for my parish.

I'd like Fr. Seraphim to do an irmologion in western notation too, so canons can be chanted correctly.
« Last Edit: October 17, 2012, 03:33:13 PM by age234 » Logged
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« Reply #8 on: October 17, 2012, 04:23:41 PM »

can anyone translate this thread into english?
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MarkosC
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« Reply #9 on: October 25, 2012, 06:31:22 AM »

To hit the last post:

Exaposilaria are a group of liturgical hymns sung at Orthros in the Byzantine tradition.   They are usually in one or two musical "keys" out of they eight used in the Byzantine liturgy.   Most of these hymns are thought to have composed by monks either at Saint Sabbas monastery near Jerusalem in decades following the Islamic conquest, or by the monks of St. John Studios in Constantinople the decades of/immediately after Iconoclasm. 

Re: the OP:

Some exapostilaria are dictated by the Octoechos, some by the the Menaion/Pentecostarion/Triodion, or on "regular" weekdays the Horologion.  I believe all the Sunday Resurrection Exapostilaria are to the 2nd mode tune "Τοῖς Μαθηταῖς συνέλθωμεν", the "regular" weekday exapostilaria are either 3rd mode "Ὁ οὐρανὸν τοῖς ἄστροις" or 2nd mode "Γυναῖκες, ἀκουτίσθητε".  Most of the hymns of the Octoechos are to either of those melodies, but not all (e.g. Ascension).

As to the why, you'd have to ask the monks, and you'd have to wait after the Second Coming.  Smiley  My own opinion is that, in their current form*, these melodies were made to have a special acclamatory character appropriate to that part of Orthros, and that subsequent hymnographers (principally in the Menaion or in the numerous additional acclamations outside the mention) are simply following the original pattern.

* That the current melodies reflects the original melodies cannot be taken for granted.   Capella Romana did a CD of some of the melodies used by my own "ethnic" jurisdiction, the Italo-Greek monks, written down probably within 2-300 years after the composition, and some of the melodies are indeed quite different.     

As another aside, it's kind of hard to appreciate Orthros in the parish because the current practice is a monastic service, is meant to be 2.5-3 hours long, builds on everyday familiarity, and at least in current practice is mostly recited with the occasional sung hymn.   The exapostilaria are especially acclamatory because they end an hour or so long, mostly recited group of canons.   
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O Lord although I desired to blot out
with my tears the handwriting of my many sins
And for the rest of my life to please Thee
through sincere repentance
Yet doth the enemy lead me astray as he wareth
against my sould with his cunning

O Lord before I utterly perish do Thou save me!
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« Reply #10 on: October 25, 2012, 08:41:34 AM »

Thanks, MarkosC, for your response. You were quite right in noticing that I have been looking for the "why". At least to a point. On a practical level, I sometimes have the text but with no tone given, or am given two sources that differ, so that's where my questioning began. My own little mission parish does not have a complete liturgical library, so we have to scrounge from various sources, often secondhand ones at that.

Your insights into the monastic practices at Orthros are interesting and informative. Perhaps the character of the exaposteilaria in that context has led to why I have been drawn to these hymns without my being able to describe it. I'll start watching with that in mind.
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« Reply #11 on: October 25, 2012, 10:08:07 AM »

Thanks, MarkosC, for your response. You were quite right in noticing that I have been looking for the "why". At least to a point. On a practical level, I sometimes have the text but with no tone given, or am given two sources that differ, so that's where my questioning began. My own little mission parish does not have a complete liturgical library, so we have to scrounge from various sources, often secondhand ones at that.

Your insights into the monastic practices at Orthros are interesting and informative. Perhaps the character of the exaposteilaria in that context has led to why I have been drawn to these hymns without my being able to describe it. I'll start watching with that in mind.

Glad to be of help, and if you have further questions feel free to post.  Plenty of people have good knowledge here, and I'd be willing to help (though I'm on here sporadically enough that I'd probably need a PM notification Cheesy ).

as for:

I thought if a (Greek) exapostilarion was in Tone 3, it was always the special melody "I see Thy bridal chamber."


The HTM prosomia (see source provided by age234) all resemble to some extent that melody but vary in length and have a few "twists and turns" to adjust to length. Of course it wouldn't surprise me if someone more knowledgeable than I could, from an authoritative source, that tell us that these HTM prosomia are merely derivatives of that melody  Wink.

The 3rd mode exapostilaria prosomia and "I see Thy Bridal Chamber" (which itself is an exapostilarion) are all variants of a basic melody.  No idea which is the "original", though if this is know it's probably in Greek liturgiology publications. 

Finally, I'd strongly suggest that you all get a copy of all the liturgical texts. 

For "Greek" (i.e. Greek and Antiochian) usage, AFAIC HTM's liturgy books are the only game in town (even the stuff from SGPM sometimes seems to be based off HTM's translation, with modern language and enough change likely to evade copyright claims).  Their books are expensive but IMO mandatory. 

They also have a full translation of the Sunday Vespers and Orthros Octoechos.  The Vespers music has been set to music by St. Anthony's monastery (http://www.stanthonysmonastery.org/music/Vespers.pdf) and downloading/printing it is HIGHLY recomended.  St. Anthony's also has other resources, though not the full Orthros Octoechos (HTM has the stuff and I've photocopies of a printed form; it may be worth asking them about this). 

 Let us know if you have trouble finding these or questions about their use.   
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O Lord although I desired to blot out
with my tears the handwriting of my many sins
And for the rest of my life to please Thee
through sincere repentance
Yet doth the enemy lead me astray as he wareth
against my sould with his cunning

O Lord before I utterly perish do Thou save me!
age234
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« Reply #12 on: October 25, 2012, 10:20:42 AM »

Thanks for the interesting info, MarkosC.

* That the current melodies reflects the original melodies cannot be taken for granted.   Capella Romana did a CD of some of the melodies used by my own "ethnic" jurisdiction, the Italo-Greek monks, written down probably within 2-300 years after the composition, and some of the melodies are indeed quite different.     

Indeed. That PDF I linked by Fr. Seraphim Dedes contains two melodies for some hymns: original and current use. Especially with the tone 3 exapostilaria, they are almost totally dissimilar.
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« Reply #13 on: October 25, 2012, 11:22:13 AM »

Thanks for the interesting info, MarkosC.

* That the current melodies reflects the original melodies cannot be taken for granted.   Capella Romana did a CD of some of the melodies used by my own "ethnic" jurisdiction, the Italo-Greek monks, written down probably within 2-300 years after the composition, and some of the melodies are indeed quite different.     

Indeed. That PDF I linked by Fr. Seraphim Dedes contains two melodies for some hymns: original and current use. Especially with the tone 3 exapostilaria, they are almost totally dissimilar.

Ah, yes.  I haven't seen the original sources he used, but my impression is that the "original" melodies are the ones in the official EP/Apostoliki Diakonia Irmologia, compared to an adaptation of what is commonly used in parishes today.   Even those Irmilogia, based on what I've heard, are generally 19th century are so compositions.  The Italo-Greek melodies are from the 1000s or earlier, and many older melodies people have dug up from manuscripts are very different from anything published today.   
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O Lord although I desired to blot out
with my tears the handwriting of my many sins
And for the rest of my life to please Thee
through sincere repentance
Yet doth the enemy lead me astray as he wareth
against my sould with his cunning

O Lord before I utterly perish do Thou save me!
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« Reply #14 on: October 25, 2012, 12:23:09 PM »


Finally, I'd strongly suggest that you all get a copy of all the liturgical texts. 

For "Greek" (i.e. Greek and Antiochian) usage, AFAIC HTM's liturgy books are the only game in town (even the stuff from SGPM sometimes seems to be based off HTM's translation, with modern language and enough change likely to evade copyright claims).  Their books are expensive but IMO mandatory. 
I drool when I see copies of the HTM books. I really don't know how I can convince our parish council to make these a financial priority. We really need to get out of our rented space first (where we have to set up and take down for every service), and I've been the one pushing for that the hardest.

Quote
They also have a full translation of the Sunday Vespers and Orthros Octoechos.  The Vespers music has been set to music by St. Anthony's monastery (http://www.stanthonysmonastery.org/music/Vespers.pdf) and downloading/printing it is HIGHLY recomended.  St. Anthony's also has other resources, though not the full Orthros Octoechos (HTM has the stuff and I've photocopies of a printed form; it may be worth asking them about this). 
St Anthony's has been very helpful on many occasions - as I said in an earlier post, we scrounge for things  Smiley, so I have discovered a lot of online material. We rarely have Vespers since our rented space is occasionally occupied by others so I haven't explored those specific resources very much. But thanks for the reminder to do so. We do have Orthros and DL every Sunday. What we do on other feast days varies depending on a variety of factors.
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