Great resources thus far, I recommend them. Also OP, since your tag says "OCA", know that St. Tikhon's Seminary Press puts out a wall calendar every year, and many parishes buy them in bulk (STS Press will even put their personalized parish info on the tab for them). Your parish may do this. If not, it might be a suggestion. I love this calendar, since it gives you the Liturgy readings for the day, the major saints of the day (and feasts) and marks fasting days, including saying when days are wine/oil, fish/wine/oil or strict fast (all as opposed to a "regular" fast day).
But, to give you a quick run-down of fasting guidelines:
Orthodox Christians fast, generally, from all meats (including fish) and animal products (cheese, eggs, milk, etc.) as well as oil and wine. This is what we usually mean when we say a day is a "fast" day. What the latter two (oil and wine) actually mean is different. Some refrain from olive oil but use other oils, some from all oils, some from just cooking with oil, etc. Likewise, some will refrain only from wine and others from both wine and liquors. Beer is generally permitted in moderated quantities (e.g., only one, maybe two, bottles/cans/glasses).
This type of fast is always observed on a "fasting" day...generally. Sometimes a fast is "relaxed" or "mitigated"...more on that later. This is the standard fast we keep on just about every Wednesday and Friday of the year. Wednesday remembers the betrayal of Christ, and Friday the crucifixion.
There are also four SEASONS of fasting, wherein fasting rules are applied to all days during the season. These four are:
Great and Holy Lent: 40 days, and is broken at Pascha. This is the strictest fasting season. wine and oil are permitted on weekends, and the Annunciation (March 25) and Palm Sunday (Sunday before Pascha) allow fish, wine and oil.
Nativity/Advent/St. Philip Fast: November 15 to December 24, 40 days before Christmas (or "Nativity") This is a very relaxed fast. Fish, wine and oil are permitted on most/all weekends and wine oil on some weekdays. This varies greatly based on local tradition.
Dormition Fast: August 1-August 14. Two weeks before the Dormition of the Theotokos. This is the second strictest fast of the year, allowing wine/oil on weekends. fish, wine and oil are permitted on the Transfiguration (Aug. 6th).
Apostles'/Ss. Peter and Paul Fast: From the Monday after All Saints until Ss. Peter and Paul (June 29). The length of this fast varies, since All Saints Day is determined by the date of Pascha. This is the least strict fast. Fish, wine and oil are permitted on weekends and wine/oil on most weekdays. On the New Calendar, this fast sometimes disappears completely (i.e., All Saints can fall after June 29th).
There are also some special days of fasting. For example, the Beheading of St. John the Baptist (Aug. 29) and the Exaltation of the Cross (Sept. 14) are always STRICT fast days...meaning one lenten meal (i.e., with the diet restrictions above) is taken. Strict fast is also observed on the Dec. 25 and Jan. 5, the eves of Christmas and Theophany, respectively. This is most likely because these days have Vesperal Liturgies, meaning that communicats observe the Eucharistic fast until evening. Which brings up...
The Eucharistic fast. This is a total fast (no food or drink...even water) from midnight until the time one communes. Of course, many dispensations are given for those who need them (e.g., those with dietary needs, especially pregnant and nursing mothers, diabetics, those who have to take morning medications etc.).
I hope that quick rundown is useful for you. I highly recommend reading the above links and regularly consulting an Orthodox calendar that details the fasting requirements for a given day! God bless.