Author Topic: Orthodox Metropolitanate of Lithuania  (Read 739 times)

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Offline ialmisry

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Orthodox Metropolitanate of Lithuania
« on: June 30, 2011, 10:20:57 AM »
Down in the Mother Church of Lithuania, in its crypt, you get a hint of where it originally got its Christianity from:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christianization_of_Lithuania

I just came across an extended scholarly treatment of this topic:

Lithuania ascending: a pagan empire within east-central Europe, 1295-1345 By S. C. Rowell
http://books.google.com/books?id=i4hpVJ51y4oC&pg=PA149&dq=%22Until+1387+when+Lithuania%22&hl=en&ei=5nUMTpLAJKKesQK1qKH_CQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22Until%201387%20when%20Lithuania%22&f=false

Wikipedia has a summary:
Quote
The Metropolitanate of Lithuania was a short-lived metropolitanate of the Orthodox Church in the 14th century. Created between 1315 and 1317,[1] it had only two metropolitans and was discontinued in 1371. Its establishment was part of the Lithuanian entry into the rivalry for the religious control of the Rus' principalities between Galicia–Volhynia, the Principality of Tver, and the Grand Duchy of Moscow. The Byzantine Empire, seat of the Patriarch of Constantinople, generally preferred a united Metropolitanate of Kiev and all Rus' and was reluctant to divide its authority. Therefore whenever possible, the Byzantium would unite the metropolitanates. Facing opposition to actual physical division of the metropolitanates, the Lithuanians employed additional tactics: promotion of their own candidates to the seat of Metropolitan of Kiev and all Rus'. By the 1440s however, the final years of the Byzantine Empire, the Grand Duchy of Moscow had effectively won the dispute and became the new spiritual center of the Orthodox tradition in Eastern Europe.

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania expanded east at the expense of Slavic Orthodox principalities of the former Kievan Rus'. While adhering to the pagan faith, Grand Dukes Vytenis and Gediminas understood the political importance of controlling the church. At the time Peter, the Metropolitan of Kiev and all Rus', supported by Galicia–Volhynia, rivaled with Mikhail Yaroslavich, Prince of Tver, who wanted to replace Peter with his own candidate.[2] As a result of this dispute, the seat of the metropolitanate was moved to Moscow.[3] Lithuania had a rather friendly relationship with Tver and perhaps the new metropolitanate was a way to support Mikhail Yaroslavich in his struggle with Metropolitan Peter, whose income was cut and authority in all of Rus' challenged.[4] The Byzantine Empire, afraid of the growing influence of local dukes, generally promoted church unity within the Rus', hoping that a strong united patriarch would be able to resist political intrigues.[5] Therefore it is unclear why it agreed to establish a new metropolitanate; later the Byzantine authorities regarded it as an "anomaly" or the "result of confusion."[6] Possibly, Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos, involved in wars with the Ottoman Empire over Asia Minor, needed military and financial assistance, both of which Lithuania could provide.[7] The emperor established the metropolitanate while Patriarch John XIII ordained the prelate.[8]

Metropolitan Theophilus (ca. 1317–1330)
The Metropolitanate of Lithuania, with episcopal see in Navahrudak, had two suffragan bishops in Turov and Polatsk.[1] From 1317 to 1330 it seems that there was only one metropolitan bishop, Theophilus, of Rus' origin.[9] A surviving list of his property shows that Theophilus traveled extensively around the Rus' principalities and presented expensive gifts to prominent rulers of the region,[10] perhaps as part of a campaign to become the Metropolitan of Kiev. After Peter's death in 1326 however, Theophilus and a candidate presented by Moscow were rejected by Constantinople as too political.[10] Instead, they appointed independent Theognostus as the new Metropolitan of Kiev and all Rus'. When Theophilus died in 1330, Theognostus succeeded in restoring unity in the Rus':[11] claiming that there were too few Christians in pagan Lithuania, the seat of the Metropolitanate of Lithuania was left vacant.[12] In case a need would arise in future, a new metropolitan could be appointed.[6] In the meanwhile Theognostus would have authority over all Rus' and Lithuania.

Metropolitan Roman (1355–1362)
After Theognostus' death in 1353, at first Grand Duke of Lithuania Algirdas did not attempt to revive the Metropolitanate of Lithuania, but promoted his own candidate Teodoryt to the see of Kiev and all Rus'. When he failed to gain support in Byzantium, Teodoryt turned to the schismatic Bulgarian Orthodox Church and received ordination there.[13] Such actions may indicate that Algirdas envisioned an autocephalous church of his own.[14] The angered Byzantines forced Algirdas to change his tactics. He now supported Roman, a monk from Tver and relative of Algirdas' wife Uliana, and even promised to convert to Orthodoxy in exchange for ordination of Roman.[15] Patriarch Callistus I, rivaled by Philotheus Kokkinos, agreed and ordained Roman as Metropolitan of Lithuania in 1355.[16]

Roman attempted to assert his authority over all Slavic lands of the Grand Duchy, even though they belonged to the Metropolitanate of Kiev and all Rus', whose patriarch Alexius resided in Moscow.[17] In 1356, after diplomatic struggles, Callistus I united the Metropolitanates of Lithuania and Galicia under Roman, while Alexius retained his title.[17] The rivalry continued however until Roman's death in 1362, when Lithuania–Galicia were placed under control of Alexius.[18] In 1371, the Metropolitanate of Lithuania was officially lowered to the rank of bishopric and placed under jurisdiction of the Metropolitan of Kiev and all Rus'.[17] However, it did not end the political rivalry for religious influence in Rus'. Algirdas successfully promoted his candidate Cyprian while Alexius was still alive.[19] In 1415, Grand Duke Vytautas attempted to re-establish the Metropolitanate of Lithuania and promoted Gregory Tsamblak.[20] The rivalry effectively ended in 1448 when Moscow began electing the patriarchs independently without approval from the Byzantium, which collapsed in 1453.[21]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metropolitanate_of_Lithuania

More is here:
Byzantium and the Rise of Russia: A Study of Byzantino-Russian Relations in the Forteenth Century By John Meyendorff
http://books.google.com/books?id=bFRXmG5GdkEC&pg=PA188&dq=Byzantium+Meyendorff+Lithuania&hl=en&ei=koUMToiuD_TJsQKs9riuCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Byzantium%20Meyendorff%20Lithuania&f=false

The Metropolitanate would have had jurisdiction here:

or more detail


Here is the Statute of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, written in its official language, Ruthenian in Cyrillic script
« Last Edit: June 30, 2011, 10:21:43 AM by ialmisry »
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Offline ozgeorge

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Re: Orthodox Metropolitanate of Lithuania
« Reply #1 on: June 30, 2011, 10:30:15 AM »
If you're living a happy life as a Christian, you're doing something wrong.

Offline ialmisry

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« Last Edit: June 30, 2011, 10:53:01 AM by ialmisry »
Question a friend, perhaps he did not do it; but if he did anything so that he may do it no more.
A hasty quarrel kindles fire,
and urgent strife sheds blood.
If you blow on a spark, it will glow;
if you spit on it, it will be put out;
                           and both come out of your mouth

Offline mike

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Re: Orthodox Metropolitanate of Lithuania
« Reply #3 on: June 30, 2011, 03:13:37 PM »
Here is the Statute of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, written in its official language, Ruthenian in Cyrillic script

Old Belarusian was the official language of the Grand Duchy until the XVII century when it was replaced with Polish.

Offline ialmisry

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Re: Orthodox Metropolitanate of Lithuania
« Reply #4 on: June 30, 2011, 05:49:47 PM »
Here is the Statute of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, written in its official language, Ruthenian in Cyrillic script

Old Belarusian was the official language of the Grand Duchy until the XVII century when it was replaced with Polish.
The language was called, as far as I have seen руски езыкъ or простый руский языкъ (not sure about spellings) "Rus' language" or "simple Rus' language," but in English it is usually called Chancery Slavonic
The reconstruction of nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999 By Timothy Snyder
http://books.google.com/books?id=QJhMhTKw-vgC&pg=PA19&lpg=PA19&dq=Chancery+Slavonic&source=bl&ots=lvWBHGgvF-&sig=anztiz1aOKGgrEm25yKOiC7zumU&hl=en&ei=LucMTuYHz4uwAtDWhb4K&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CCUQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Chancery%20Slavonic&f=false
(btw, on p. 23 it states that the Statute of the Grand Duchy was written by a committee of 5 Orthodox and 5 communicants with the Vatican.)

This is the only visual I've gotten on the underlying languages of the time (most just show the states):

The Yellow is basically what went on to become Rusyn/Carpatho-Russian/Ruthenian; the Pink Urkainian, the light green Belarussian, the dark Green Russian.  That only goes for the standard languages. 

I say underlying because there was a diglossia between Old Church Slavonic, now in recensions of Church Slavonic which reflected the underlying vernacular. It was the vernacular in the areas which became the Belarussian dialects, upon which the Belarussian standard was based in the 19th into the 20th century, which basically developed from a recension of словѣ́ньскъ ѩзꙑ́къ into a руски езыкъ, i.e. an independent language.  Ruthenian is the term borrowed into English via Latin, but yes, it would be Old Belarusian.



Question a friend, perhaps he did not do it; but if he did anything so that he may do it no more.
A hasty quarrel kindles fire,
and urgent strife sheds blood.
If you blow on a spark, it will glow;
if you spit on it, it will be put out;
                           and both come out of your mouth

Offline ialmisry

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Re: Orthodox Metropolitanate of Lithuania
« Reply #5 on: June 30, 2011, 06:56:52 PM »
I should have put up something for comparison

http://kroraina.com/makedonija/Karti/Ethno/slaveni-karta.jpg
which shows the distribution in the mid 1920's, before too much upheaval of what had been prior for centuries.

I just came across this and thought it interesting:

http://dnghu.org/slavic-languages-map.gif

and a chart of their mutual influences:

http://s155239215.onlinehome.us/turkic/40_Language/DruhaAngl_Slavic.gif
http://s155239215.onlinehome.us/turkic/40_Language/StetsyukB2ch7En.htm
Question a friend, perhaps he did not do it; but if he did anything so that he may do it no more.
A hasty quarrel kindles fire,
and urgent strife sheds blood.
If you blow on a spark, it will glow;
if you spit on it, it will be put out;
                           and both come out of your mouth

Offline ialmisry

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Re: Orthodox Metropolitanate of Lithuania
« Reply #6 on: September 21, 2011, 03:21:24 PM »
Just came across these, which see the history of the Belarus Orthodox and the Lithuanian Orthodox as one history

http://www.belarusguide.com/culture1/religion/BAOC.html
and with a Vatican spin
http://www.catholic.by/port/en/history.htm
Question a friend, perhaps he did not do it; but if he did anything so that he may do it no more.
A hasty quarrel kindles fire,
and urgent strife sheds blood.
If you blow on a spark, it will glow;
if you spit on it, it will be put out;
                           and both come out of your mouth

Offline ialmisry

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Question a friend, perhaps he did not do it; but if he did anything so that he may do it no more.
A hasty quarrel kindles fire,
and urgent strife sheds blood.
If you blow on a spark, it will glow;
if you spit on it, it will be put out;
                           and both come out of your mouth

Offline ialmisry

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Re: Orthodox Metropolitanate of Lithuania
« Reply #8 on: September 23, 2011, 05:37:07 PM »
On the attempt of the Grand Duke of Lithuania, now loyal son of the Vatican, trying to revive the Orthodox Metropolitanate in opposition to the Orthodox Metropolitan Photios, to send off to the council of Constance, where the patriarchate of the West was deciding which of the three claimants and their seperate curias and colleges of cardinals was "really the supreme pontiff":
Making a great ruler: Grand Duke Vytautas of Lithuania By Giedrė Mickūnaitė
http://books.google.com/books?id=a5zKQM7eEMgC&pg=PA46&lpg=PA46&dq=Gregory+Kiev+November+15&source=bl&ots=irviVCsvw_&sig=W-ouTJR544cDqyJZFRw6uhvNH10&hl=en&ei=m-p7TrqHOIOrsAKu1ZXOAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CB4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Gregory%20Kiev%20November%2015&f=false

The Council of Florence By Joseph Gill
http://books.google.com/books?id=T6fKc6EcRt4C&pg=PA25&dq=The+council+of+florence+Gill+oriental+embassy&hl=en&ei=oR58TomYI8Lg0QGxr-zwDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false

On the use of Ruthenian in the Lithuanian state, and a reference to the attempt to translate the see of Kiev to Novogrudok/Navahraduk and hence Vilnius.  The Archival Legacy of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: The Fate of Early Historical Archives in Vilnius by PK Grimsted  
by PK Grimsted
http://www.jstor.org/pss/4207914
Question a friend, perhaps he did not do it; but if he did anything so that he may do it no more.
A hasty quarrel kindles fire,
and urgent strife sheds blood.
If you blow on a spark, it will glow;
if you spit on it, it will be put out;
                           and both come out of your mouth

Offline ialmisry

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Re: Orthodox Metropolitanate of Lithuania
« Reply #9 on: December 20, 2011, 04:24:11 PM »
Just came across a lovely video on the Church in Lithuania:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M0_hGxL-2Qk
Question a friend, perhaps he did not do it; but if he did anything so that he may do it no more.
A hasty quarrel kindles fire,
and urgent strife sheds blood.
If you blow on a spark, it will glow;
if you spit on it, it will be put out;
                           and both come out of your mouth