Such a diagram is called a histomap:
There does appear to be a histomap of religion (in general, not specifically Christianity) but no copies of it seem to be available on Google image search. I have not yet seen a histomap of Christian
churches specifically, but that would be very neat.
In particular I'd find it interesting to know whether the RC have always outnumbered the EO (or EO+OO) since 1054, or if there have been any times where the RC were outnumbered.
Protestantism seems like it will overtake the RC soon, because of trends in Central and South America. Pentecostalism makes up the vast majority of this growth and all other Protestant movements will become insignificant by comparison.
A histomap based on geographical spread rather than population size would show ACOTE as being the largest by far
prior to Tamerlane, with all the other churches looking tiny by comparison. However, ACOTE wasn't the majority religion in most of the areas in which it was present.