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88Devin12
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« on: April 01, 2011, 08:06:08 AM »

I've been trying to compile a timeline of development of various aspects of church architecture, furnishings and chant. There are many things that we will assume to be "Western" developments, and yet, many can be found before even the schism. I wanted to write about some of these developments and how they actually can be considered to be just as part of our Orthodox tradition as our own Byzantine traditions.

First Century:

Iconography, well all know it comes directly from the first century and was continued in the Christian tradition as it was from the Judaic tradition. Many of the earliest images include not just Old Testament figures, but pictures of Saints, of Christ as the Good Shepherd, of Fish, of wine/grapes, of plants, of animals, etc...

Engraving and reliefs also comes from the first century in Christian history. Here you find Christians carving images into stone. This becomes much more refined and developed as time goes on, and when Christianity is legalized, we see this entering the Churches with furniture carved out of marble and stone, or elements of architecture such as columns, friezes, etc...

3rd Century:

The Ambo dates to about the 3rd century. This was typically a stone or wood platform which had several steps leading up to it. It was the ancient predecessor to the pulpit. Originally they sat in the center of the Church directly in front of the "templon" (later iconostasis), and were eventually moved to the side of the Church. In the Russian tradition today, the steps leading up to the sanctuary/chancel have a section protruding out in front of the Royal Doors, and so in the Russian tradition, this acts as the Ambo. The Greek churches still retain and use the elevated platform.

4th Century:

In the 4th Century, we see the development of the Basilica Church and the Central Church. These two were prototypes taken from Roman precidents. Central Churches typically acted as matryriums, baptismals and other secondary spaces. The Basilica became the primary layout for the Church, and was best suited to the services of the Church.

Stained/Colored Glass in Church Architecture is also first found in the 4th Century. Most Churches had alabaster-colored glass, but there are remnants of glass of other colors found from 4th/5th Century Churches. One such example can be found at the Byzantine Museum in Thessaloniki, where there is colored glass from a Church (I think from the 5th/6th Century) that is colored green, blue, clear, etc... So it is important to keep in mind, that stained/colored glass is not something new to Orthodox Churches, and has existed for nearly 2000 years in ecclesiastical architecture.

Two church architectural styles also originate in the 4th century. These two being the Byzantine Style and the Coptic Style.

Church Statuary also seems to originate in the 4th Century. The initial statues that could be found in Churches seem to be statues of Christ as the Good Shepherd. This would make sense, as the Greeks already had statues of the "Calf-Bearer" and so the Christian image of Christ as the Good-Shepherd (holding a lamb) would be a natural replacement, and probably easier for sculptors to craft. So today, when we see statuary in Orthodox (or even Catholic) Churches, we must remember that this is a tradition dating back to the 4th Century, and isn't something extremely new.

5th Century:

The Templon first appears in the 5th Century. The Templon was placed between the Sanctuary and the Nave as a method of division. It was composed of several tall columns that had slabs placed between them at the ground level (usually carved with crosses, plants, animals, etc...) and at the top, they had a cornice/beam running across. This was the ancient predecessor of the iconostasis, or rood screen. At this point, it had not been filled with icons, and one could see through to the altar. Most iconostasis today are still constructed much like the templon, but have icons filling the openings between the columns...

Gallican Chant as we know it today also seems to develop in the 5th Century.

6th Century:

In the 6th Century, we see the appearance of Church Bells. At first, I think they were smaller in nature, but later became larger.

The Pre-Romanesque Architecture Style also first appears in the 6th Century.

Celtic Chant appears in about the 6th Century.

The Benedictine Order of monasticism in the West first develops in the 6th Century.

7th Century:

In the 7th Century, Church Organs first appear to be used, though their precise usage may be unknown. It is interesting to note though, that the use of organs in liturgical worship is also not something new.

Mozarabic Chant and the Mozarabic Rite also appears in the 7th Century.

8th Century:

We first see the Cross-In-Square style develop in the 8th Century. This is the style that dominates the Orthodox tradition, and is the combination of the basilica church and the central church.

Byzantine Chant, Ambrosian Chant, Old Roman Chant & Beneventan Chant as we know them today also seem to have developed in the 8th Century. Byzantine Chant is largely based on Eastern Chanting Styles prior to the 8th Century (eventually going back to Judaism). Most Western Chants also owe their ancestry to Eastern Chant, but eventually developed into their own styles.

The Gallican Rite as we know it today also developed in the 8th Century

9th Century:

This is the first period we begin to see the Semantron develop. This is slab of wood that is struck with a hammer in order to call people to prayer. It would become extremely common during Muslim domination, as Muslims would ban the use of bells.

The Celtic and Durham Rites also develop during this period.

10th Century:

By the 10th Century, we finally see the iconostasis fully develop from the templon. We also see the rood screen develop by this period.

Gregorian Chant first develops during this period. It is interesting to notice this, as we most often associate Gregorian Chant with the Post-Schism Roman Church, but it pre-dates the Schism, and owes it's ancestry to Western Chants (which owe their ancestry to Eastern Chants).

This is also the century where we first see development of the "Pre-Tridentine" Roman Mass.

11th Century:

This is the period during which the Patriarch of Constantinople and Cardinal Humbert of Rome exchanged excommunications. While the Schism is dated to this period, it is interesting to note there was continuous inter-communion and con-celebrations occurring, even amongst monastics up until the 13th Century.

In Orthodox Churches, we first see the development of "double ambos", where there would be two ambos instead of one in a church.

The Sarum Rite appears during this period.

12th Century:

Romanesque Architecture first starts developing during this period.

The Cistercian Rite develops.

13th Century:

This period marks the final straw during the Great Schism, and very soon afterward, inter-communion and con-celebrations cease virtually completely, and the last Benedictine Monastery on Mount Athos closes.

The Franciscan and Dominican Orders develop during this century.

14th Century:

Altar and communion rails appear in Western Churches. The ancient Templon has developed into the Rood Screen, and is then lowered to become an altar/communion rail. Eventually it will dissapear alltogether in the Western Churches.

15th Century:
This period marks the fall of Constantinople and the rest of the Byzantine Empire to the Ottoman Turks.

The Renaissance Architectural Style develops during this century.

16th Century:

With the Protestant Reformation, we see the addition of Pews to Church Architecture in the West. Prior to this period, everyone stood for worship in the East and the West.

The Tridentine Mass is finally introduced in the Roman Church, and all existing rites are conformed to the Roman Rite.

18th Century:

Byzantine Notation is developed.
« Last Edit: April 01, 2011, 08:09:58 AM by 88Devin12 » Logged
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« Reply #1 on: April 01, 2011, 09:53:06 AM »

There are several things I'd want to modify, but the biggest is the statement about Byzantine notation. It was not developed in the 18th century, it was reformed and simplified. The notation goes way back, as many manuscripts attest.

The Orthodoxwiki entry on Byzantine notation is very misleading (I assume that's where you got your information). For the real story, check out the publications of Dimitri Conomos, Alexander Lingas, or, for the most succinct presentation of the status quaestionis, the entry on Byzantine chant in The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians.
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Tikhon29605
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« Reply #2 on: April 01, 2011, 10:05:40 AM »

I've been trying to compile a timeline of development of various aspects of church architecture, furnishings and chant. There are many things that we will assume to be "Western" developments, and yet, many can be found before even the schism. I wanted to write about some of these developments and how they actually can be considered to be just as part of our Orthodox tradition as our own Byzantine traditions.

First Century:

Iconography, well all know it comes directly from the first century and was continued in the Christian tradition as it was from the Judaic tradition. Many of the earliest images include not just Old Testament figures, but pictures of Saints, of Christ as the Good Shepherd, of Fish, of wine/grapes, of plants, of animals, etc...

Engraving and reliefs also comes from the first century in Christian history. Here you find Christians carving images into stone. This becomes much more refined and developed as time goes on, and when Christianity is legalized, we see this entering the Churches with furniture carved out of marble and stone, or elements of architecture such as columns, friezes, etc...

3rd Century:

The Ambo dates to about the 3rd century. This was typically a stone or wood platform which had several steps leading up to it. It was the ancient predecessor to the pulpit. Originally they sat in the center of the Church directly in front of the "templon" (later iconostasis), and were eventually moved to the side of the Church. In the Russian tradition today, the steps leading up to the sanctuary/chancel have a section protruding out in front of the Royal Doors, and so in the Russian tradition, this acts as the Ambo. The Greek churches still retain and use the elevated platform.

4th Century:

In the 4th Century, we see the development of the Basilica Church and the Central Church. These two were prototypes taken from Roman precidents. Central Churches typically acted as matryriums, baptismals and other secondary spaces. The Basilica became the primary layout for the Church, and was best suited to the services of the Church.

Stained/Colored Glass in Church Architecture is also first found in the 4th Century. Most Churches had alabaster-colored glass, but there are remnants of glass of other colors found from 4th/5th Century Churches. One such example can be found at the Byzantine Museum in Thessaloniki, where there is colored glass from a Church (I think from the 5th/6th Century) that is colored green, blue, clear, etc... So it is important to keep in mind, that stained/colored glass is not something new to Orthodox Churches, and has existed for nearly 2000 years in ecclesiastical architecture.

Two church architectural styles also originate in the 4th century. These two being the Byzantine Style and the Coptic Style.

Church Statuary also seems to originate in the 4th Century. The initial statues that could be found in Churches seem to be statues of Christ as the Good Shepherd. This would make sense, as the Greeks already had statues of the "Calf-Bearer" and so the Christian image of Christ as the Good-Shepherd (holding a lamb) would be a natural replacement, and probably easier for sculptors to craft. So today, when we see statuary in Orthodox (or even Catholic) Churches, we must remember that this is a tradition dating back to the 4th Century, and isn't something extremely new.

5th Century:

The Templon first appears in the 5th Century. The Templon was placed between the Sanctuary and the Nave as a method of division. It was composed of several tall columns that had slabs placed between them at the ground level (usually carved with crosses, plants, animals, etc...) and at the top, they had a cornice/beam running across. This was the ancient predecessor of the iconostasis, or rood screen. At this point, it had not been filled with icons, and one could see through to the altar. Most iconostasis today are still constructed much like the templon, but have icons filling the openings between the columns...

Gallican Chant as we know it today also seems to develop in the 5th Century.

6th Century:

In the 6th Century, we see the appearance of Church Bells. At first, I think they were smaller in nature, but later became larger.

The Pre-Romanesque Architecture Style also first appears in the 6th Century.

Celtic Chant appears in about the 6th Century.

The Benedictine Order of monasticism in the West first develops in the 6th Century.

7th Century:

In the 7th Century, Church Organs first appear to be used, though their precise usage may be unknown. It is interesting to note though, that the use of organs in liturgical worship is also not something new.

Mozarabic Chant and the Mozarabic Rite also appears in the 7th Century.

8th Century:

We first see the Cross-In-Square style develop in the 8th Century. This is the style that dominates the Orthodox tradition, and is the combination of the basilica church and the central church.

Byzantine Chant, Ambrosian Chant, Old Roman Chant & Beneventan Chant as we know them today also seem to have developed in the 8th Century. Byzantine Chant is largely based on Eastern Chanting Styles prior to the 8th Century (eventually going back to Judaism). Most Western Chants also owe their ancestry to Eastern Chant, but eventually developed into their own styles.

The Gallican Rite as we know it today also developed in the 8th Century

9th Century:

This is the first period we begin to see the Semantron develop. This is slab of wood that is struck with a hammer in order to call people to prayer. It would become extremely common during Muslim domination, as Muslims would ban the use of bells.

The Celtic and Durham Rites also develop during this period.

10th Century:

By the 10th Century, we finally see the iconostasis fully develop from the templon. We also see the rood screen develop by this period.

Gregorian Chant first develops during this period. It is interesting to notice this, as we most often associate Gregorian Chant with the Post-Schism Roman Church, but it pre-dates the Schism, and owes it's ancestry to Western Chants (which owe their ancestry to Eastern Chants).

This is also the century where we first see development of the "Pre-Tridentine" Roman Mass.

11th Century:

This is the period during which the Patriarch of Constantinople and Cardinal Humbert of Rome exchanged excommunications. While the Schism is dated to this period, it is interesting to note there was continuous inter-communion and con-celebrations occurring, even amongst monastics up until the 13th Century.

In Orthodox Churches, we first see the development of "double ambos", where there would be two ambos instead of one in a church.

The Sarum Rite appears during this period.

12th Century:

Romanesque Architecture first starts developing during this period.

The Cistercian Rite develops.

13th Century:

This period marks the final straw during the Great Schism, and very soon afterward, inter-communion and con-celebrations cease virtually completely, and the last Benedictine Monastery on Mount Athos closes.

The Franciscan and Dominican Orders develop during this century.

14th Century:

Altar and communion rails appear in Western Churches. The ancient Templon has developed into the Rood Screen, and is then lowered to become an altar/communion rail. Eventually it will dissapear alltogether in the Western Churches.

15th Century:
This period marks the fall of Constantinople and the rest of the Byzantine Empire to the Ottoman Turks.

The Renaissance Architectural Style develops during this century.

16th Century:

With the Protestant Reformation, we see the addition of Pews to Church Architecture in the West. Prior to this period, everyone stood for worship in the East and the West.

The Tridentine Mass is finally introduced in the Roman Church, and all existing rites are conformed to the Roman Rite.

18th Century:

Byzantine Notation is developed.


Where did you get this information? What are your sources?

I wonder because the rood screen is NOT related in any way to the iconostasis. People that think the Western rood screen is related to the Eastern iconostasis are quite misinformed.  At best such people are looking at Western architecture of the past and trying to read Eastern Orthodoxy into it when it is in fact, not there. 

The REAL purpose of the rood screen was practical. It was to keep the choir area warmer than the rest of the church. The rood screen separated the nave from the choir in some Western Churches, usually in Northwestern Europe, such as France, England and Germany. Daily services were held in the choir. These churches, being in northern Europe and being unheated, were quite cold inside.  A way to warm them up was to build a partition between the choir and the nave (the rood screen).  Sometimes the rood screen even had a curtain attached to it so that it could be drawn.  Again, this had no theological or symbolical significance.  It was simply to protect the people in the choir from drafts and to keep the precious little heat that was there in the choir and altar area. 
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88Devin12
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« Reply #3 on: April 01, 2011, 12:51:02 PM »

Where did you get this information? What are your sources?

I wonder because the rood screen is NOT related in any way to the iconostasis. People that think the Western rood screen is related to the Eastern iconostasis are quite misinformed.  At best such people are looking at Western architecture of the past and trying to read Eastern Orthodoxy into it when it is in fact, not there.

The REAL purpose of the rood screen was practical. It was to keep the choir area warmer than the rest of the church. The rood screen separated the nave from the choir in some Western Churches, usually in Northwestern Europe, such as France, England and Germany. Daily services were held in the choir. These churches, being in northern Europe and being unheated, were quite cold inside.  A way to warm them up was to build a partition between the choir and the nave (the rood screen).  Sometimes the rood screen even had a curtain attached to it so that it could be drawn.  Again, this had no theological or symbolical significance.  It was simply to protect the people in the choir from drafts and to keep the precious little heat that was there in the choir and altar area.  

Tikhon,

This is a Templon:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Santa_Maria_in_Cosmedin_Interior.jpg
(you can also see an ambo to the right)

I don't really see how the Western rood/chancel screen is unrelated to the Templon when the two are so extremely similar. Their location in the Church is exactly the same, and their basic form is exactly the same. I would say to deny a connection is ignoring the wealth of similarities.

You also have to keep in mind that older churches even in Italy have barriers identical to the Templon.

What appears to have happened is that there were altar rail-like barriers (lower) up until the Templon.
One of the major Churches to have adopted the Templon was Hagia Sophia. In Christendom we have found that many other Churches adopted many aspects of worship existing in Hagia Sophia (the modern Liturgy comes directly from Constantinople, there were many other liturgies and rites around the world)

It would have been logical for Roman Churches to adopt the Templon, especially if it was present at Hagia Sophia. The Rood Screen didn't fully develop until later. (that is, the Rood wasn't added until later)

This is the same case as the Chant. Chant in the West was HEAVILY influenced and formed by Eastern Chant. It developed further (and separately) in the West, but it's origins are still partly Eastern.
« Last Edit: April 01, 2011, 12:51:26 PM by 88Devin12 » Logged
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« Reply #4 on: April 01, 2011, 02:30:13 PM »

Did the Templon not have its roots in the Curtain used in the Synagogue, with use before the 5th Century in the Christian liturgy?

Do some OO churches not retain this practice as evidence of the fact?
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88Devin12
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« Reply #5 on: April 01, 2011, 02:33:21 PM »

Did the Templon not have its roots in the Curtain used in the Synagogue, with use before the 5th Century in the Christian liturgy?

Do some OO churches not retain this practice as evidence of the fact?

I think so, but the Templon was also largely based off of Roman/Greek theater Walls/Screens.
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