If someone could please give me some basic info on the Apostolic Canons. Was this a council, who attended, and are these canons recognized by both the East and West? Do they hold any authority on a universal level? Are they still valid?
My issue is canon 34 of the Apostolic Canons, which places Rome as "first amongst equals" or "primacy of honor". Does the Latin Church recognize this? Were there canons in any of the Seven Ecumenical Councils that dealt with the structure and rankings in the Church?
I can't speak much to the origin of the Apostolic Canons, but in my experience talking with both Catholics and Orthodox, both churches hold the Apostolic Canons as valid. And Rome would certainly recognize having the primacy of honor, and being the first among equals!
As far as rankings and structure of the Church go, there are numerous canons dealing with this. Canon 3 of Constantinople 1 puts the order of honor of the 5 ancient Patriarchates as going Rome, Contantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem. I would recommend reading through the canons of Nicaea 1 and Constantinople to get many of the fundamental guidelines for the administration of the Church. I have yet to finish reading the canons of all 7 ecumenical councils and the others like Trullo and Sardica, but Sardica sets forth the precedent for appealing to Rome that Ialmisry mentioned, and the description of what the Pope can and can't do in regards to that appeal is spot-on.
You can do your own research and read all of the canons of the Councils, available online for free here
. Others will probably be along to list some other canons you can look up.