Some preliminary thoughts of my own-
St. Maximus, when he talks about overcoming the sexual division, I think means that we transcend the division, as opposed to erasing it. And the key to the transcendence is Christ's incarnation. Now we now that the world to come will not be the same as paradise before the Fall, and this is in part due to the difference made by the Incarnation.
Christ assumed the entirety of human nature, and deified it, yet he was still a male. Likewise the Mother of God achieved the heights of perfection but did not cease to be a woman. So I think the way we are to overcome the sexual division will not be a simple reversal of the split, just like the Incarnation, the Second Coming, and Resurrection are not simply a reversal of the Fall.
Also, "neither male nor female," I think, points to unity and equality, not necessarily sameness. We are united in Christ, especially in communion, but this does not erase distinctions.
I think it's wrong to think of the priesthood as a privilege for males, or as something which suggests that women are inferior. The fact that we have many woman saints called "Equal-to-the-Apostles" says something. Likewise, I often think of the meeting of St. Zosima with St. Mary of Egypt with regards to this question. She insists that St. Zosima should give her the blessing first, because he is a priest; but St. Zosima says that she should give the blessing first, because she is holier than he is. They go back and forth for a while, and finally St. Mary gives the blessing first.
But these are just my disorganized musings on your question.