I had a few questions about our doctrine and history. I'm currently a catechumate. How does our attitude and art style toward icons differ compared to the Roman Church of the West?
Since the renaissance, the West has gone for an element of realism (i.e. trying to aim for a photographic representation of reality, rather than how it is viewed with the eyes of the Church) and emotionalism mostly absent (or borrowed) in the East.
Also, did iconography play a part in the schism?
somewhat:the iconoclast emperors tried to limit the authority of the pope of Rome (e.g. transferred the Balkans from the jurisdiction of Rome to Constantinople's), and the Frankish/Germanic emperors were iconoclastic (mostly from faulty translations of the Seventh Council) and tried to use that as an excuse to undermine opposition to the filioque.
How? And lastly, I was amazed when someone at my Parish told me that St. Paul established the Greek Orthodox Church when he wrote all of those epistles to the random Greek districts in the New Testament? Is this true? If so, I am really amazed.
Those Churches mostly still survive, and they are Greek Orthodox (or Arab Orthodox in some areas), Rome being the big exception.
And lastly, did St. Peter really establish a Church in Rome or did he just die there?
He supposedly consecrated the first bishop of Rome, Linus, and the third, St. Clement, was his disciple. St. Paul also preached at Rome (and it seems made it to Spain).