OrthodoxChristianity.net
August 02, 2014, 03:17:25 AM *
Welcome, Guest. Please login or register.

Login with username, password and session length
News: Reminder: No political discussions in the public fora.  If you do not have access to the private Politics Forum, please send a PM to Fr. George.
 
   Home   Help Calendar Contact Treasury Tags Login Register  
Pages: « 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 »   Go Down
  Print  
Author Topic: Blasphemous and Heretical Musings of a Self-Styled Deity Claiming Unity of Belief Between Christianity and Hinduism  (Read 96815 times) Average Rating: 0
0 Members and 2 Guests are viewing this topic.
chrevbel
Site Supporter
High Elder
*****
Offline Offline

Faith: Orthodox Christian
Jurisdiction: Antiochian
Posts: 708



« Reply #855 on: November 24, 2010, 10:48:11 AM »

We all have much to learn.
Logged
recent convert
Orthodox Chrisitan
Warned
OC.net guru
*******
Offline Offline

Faith: Christian
Jurisdiction: Antiochian (N.A.)
Posts: 1,875


« Reply #856 on: November 24, 2010, 12:22:10 PM »

And what of the ducks?  What of those?

God enters into a liberated soul (Son of God) for preaching and uplifting the human souls. Here the Son of God or the liberated soul is a slave to God and God speaks wonderful divine knowledge through HIs mouth and give credit to the Son of God. Son of GOd has fully surrendered to God and God likes SOn of God like anything...
You might want to take a look at John 17; look up online if necessary here: http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/
Logged

Antiochian OC N.A.
theistgal
Byzantine (Ruthenian) Catholic gadfly
Site Supporter
Archon
*****
Offline Offline

Faith: Follower of Jesus Christ
Jurisdiction: Byzantine Catholic
Posts: 2,082


don't even go there!


« Reply #857 on: November 24, 2010, 02:15:52 PM »

lol - I'm reminded of an old Steve Martin routine - "Do you know what you'll say when the ducks come?"
Logged

"Sometimes, you just gotta say, 'OK, I still have nine live, two-headed animals' and move on.'' (owner of Coney Island freak show, upon learning he'd been outbid on a 5-legged puppy)
podkarpatska
Warned
Merarches
***********
Offline Offline

Faith: Orthodox
Jurisdiction: ACROD
Posts: 8,034


SS Cyril and Methodius Church, Mercer, PA


WWW
« Reply #858 on: November 24, 2010, 02:25:24 PM »

Or as Groucho Marx used to say, " If it looks like a duck, and quacks like a duck....IT'S A DUCK!." Everybody duck now.......
Logged
Agia Marina
Site Supporter
Elder
*****
Offline Offline

Faith: Eastern Orthodox
Jurisdiction: OCA, Bulgarian Diocese
Posts: 409


St. Marina of Antioch


WWW
« Reply #859 on: November 24, 2010, 05:18:19 PM »

Didja get that, stanley?  Roll Eyes
I am still looking. I can't seem to find the duck which lays the egg of solid gold. All the eggs which I have seen are quite fragile, break easily and they go bad after a while. 
I think Venu meant 'goose', but he's only human.  Grin
Logged

“When I have a little money I buy books; and if any is left, I buy food and clothes.” - Erasmus

"God became man so that man might become a god." ~St. Athanasius the Great

Poster formerly known as EVOO.
Justin Kissel
Formerly Asteriktos
Protospatharios
****************
Offline Offline

Posts: 29,383



« Reply #860 on: November 24, 2010, 06:41:05 PM »

Logged

"Change is the process of becoming more like who we are."
stanley123
Protokentarchos
*********
Offline Offline

Faith: Catholic
Jurisdiction: Roman Catholic
Posts: 3,809


« Reply #861 on: November 24, 2010, 07:13:13 PM »

lol - I'm reminded of an old Steve Martin routine - "Do you know what you'll say when the ducks come?"
Yes. Where are the eggs of solid gold that the guru has been telling us about. I see only the fragile, easy to break eggs.
Logged
dattaswami
High Elder
******
Offline Offline

Posts: 837



« Reply #862 on: November 24, 2010, 10:43:26 PM »

lol - I'm reminded of an old Steve Martin routine - "Do you know what you'll say when the ducks come?"

God will not use his super power as far as possible unless a very rare occasion of protecting the most deserving devotee arises. A good administrator will always run the institution on the natural wheels of the rules already setup. As far as possible, he will not disturb the routine and natural functioning of the system.

This is the reason for the Lord Krishna not to change the mind of Duryodhana ( a demon), who was rigidly favoring the war. He did not use the super power in the case of Arjuna (a devotee) also, when Arjuna was against the war. In the case of Duryodhana the Lord tried His best to stop the war. In the case of Arjuna the same Lord tried His best to provoke Arjuna to fight the war. In both cases, He has taken lot of time and put best efforts through long preaching.

 In the case of Duryodhana the Lord failed and in the case of Arjuna the Lord succeeded. Of course virtually it is failure of Duryodhana and success of Arjuna to assimilate the advice from the Lord. However from the angle of the Lord, the effort was put by the Lord and hence from the point of effort it has to be considered as failure and success of Lord only.

The total essence is that the Lord is not bothered about the success and failure of His efforts put based on natural setup of the creation. If the individual soul fails in its effort, it will try to use the superpower if it is in possession of such superpower. But the Lord never used such superpower since He wants that everything should run on the natural rules setup by Him. In both the cases the Lord could have changed their minds in a fraction of second by using His superpower. In both the cases, He never used His superpower and tried to achieve result through the natural effort only. Therefore God is always fond of doing things based on the natural setup of administration. He is never fond of exhibiting His superpower.
Logged
dattaswami
High Elder
******
Offline Offline

Posts: 837



« Reply #863 on: November 24, 2010, 10:45:02 PM »

Didja get that, stanley?  Roll Eyes
I am still looking. I can't seem to find the duck which lays the egg of solid gold. All the eggs which I have seen are quite fragile, break easily and they go bad after a while. 
I think Venu meant 'goose', but he's only human.  Grin

You must study the stories of devotees because they are the practical procedures of spiritual path, which are like the laboratory manuals in which the student is more involved.  Scriptures are the theory-class rooms.  Therefore, Vyasa wrote all the stories of devotees which are very important to know the practical problems in the spiritual path.  These stories (Puranas) are part of the spiritual knowledge and not like the cinema stories meant for entertainment.

 Among these Puranas Ramayana, Bharatha and Bhagavatha are very significant.  They deal with the then existing human incarnations available for those devotees.  The other Puranas deal with energetic forms like Vishnu, Shiva etc., for the devotees who suffer with jealousy and egoism to recognize the human form of the Lord. 
 
Read this divine knowledge, digest it, propagate it and try to practice it as far as possible.  Certainly, this knowledge has come from the absolute God.  Whether God stays externally and I am just His messenger or whether God stays in Me and is giving this knowledge, it is immaterial.
Logged
dattaswami
High Elder
******
Offline Offline

Posts: 837



« Reply #864 on: November 24, 2010, 10:45:49 PM »

Or as Groucho Marx used to say, " If it looks like a duck, and quacks like a duck....IT'S A DUCK!." Everybody duck now.......

  Veda says that unless one recognizes God here itself who is present before his eyes, the future will be in great loss (Ihachet…,Yet Sakshat Aparokshat…). Unless one recognizes God existing in the same medium, the principle of repulsion between common media will hinder the full devotion. If the devotee missed God here existing in the same medium (human body), the highest result can never be attained.  Hanuman was equal to Gopikas in all aspects like recognizing and serving the contemporary human incarnation etc., but missed by a very narrow margin, since He fought with the Lord to protect Yayati. 

However, in the case of Hanuman, we should take Him as the role only because as actor He is the Lord Himself. The message was given by the Lord Himself through this role, which is that even the top most devotees may be polluted with the egoism and jealousy for at least some time during their life time. 
Logged
dattaswami
High Elder
******
Offline Offline

Posts: 837



« Reply #865 on: November 24, 2010, 10:47:10 PM »

We all have much to learn.

You must get the correct information to reach Delhi ( a place). The correct information will show you the right path to reach the goal. Here, the purpose of knowledge is over. From this point onwards, your effort is required. You may have the correct knowledge of the path, but unless you put the effort to walk, the goal is not reached. The true knowledge is given by the scripture. But, unfortunately wrong interpretations of the scripture exist in this world. Therefore, the correct interpretation with powerful explanation of the scripture is required. The correct interpretation is only known to the Author of the Scripture. Therefore, God, the Author of the Scripture, should come down in the human form as Preacher to give the original interpretation and clarify all your doubts to convince you with powerful and correct logic.

 If God comes in any form other than human form, the preaching is not possible. Of course, God can preach you even in the form of a statue through His omnipotence. But, if that is done, you will be excited with tension and will not be able to receive the interpretation and will not be able to express your doubts in cool atmosphere. For this purpose only, God comes down in the human form as a Preacher so that you will treat Him as your co-human being and express your doubts freely to get correct clarification. Hence, [there is] the importance of contemporary human incarnation.
Logged
dattaswami
High Elder
******
Offline Offline

Posts: 837



« Reply #866 on: November 24, 2010, 10:48:46 PM »

lol - I'm reminded of an old Steve Martin routine - "Do you know what you'll say when the ducks come?"
Yes. Where are the eggs of solid gold that the guru has been telling us about. I see only the fragile, easy to break eggs.

All the souls are servants of God and God is always the Master of souls (Aatmeshwaram… Veda). Since the relevant God is the contemporary human incarnation, the bond with the contemporary human incarnation must be the top most. Hanuman and Gopikas maintained top most bonds with their contemporary human incarnations viz. Rama and Krishna (past human incarnations) only. The top most bond with irrelevant energetic incarnations and past human incarnations become meaningless.

The photos and statues represent these energetic incarnations and past human incarnations and therefore, the bonds with such photos and statues are not only meaningless but also foolish. Of course, if the human being has not reached the stage of maturity to have bond with contemporary human form of God, the bond with photos, statues, energetic forms and past human forms should be respected, which serves the purpose of development of theoretical devotion to God. Such theoretical devotion on ripening becomes practical devotion to the contemporary human incarnation. You should always remember that the practical devotion to the contemporary human incarnation alone gives the divine fruit, which is clearly seen in Hanuman and Gopikas.
Logged
PoorFoolNicholas
Site Supporter
OC.net guru
*****
Offline Offline

Faith: Orthodox
Jurisdiction: Theologoumenon
Posts: 1,664


« Reply #867 on: November 24, 2010, 11:16:55 PM »

For other uses, see Alphabet (disambiguation).

A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia.

Writing systems
History
Grapheme
List of writing systems
Types
Featural alphabet
Alphabet
Abjad
Abugida
Syllabary
Logography
Related topics
Pictogram
Ideogram
An alphabet is a standardized set of letters—basic written symbols or graphemes—each of which roughly represents a phoneme in a spoken language, either as it exists now or as it was in the past. There are other systems, such as logographies, in which each character represents a word, morpheme, or semantic unit, and syllabaries, in which each character represents a syllable. Alphabets are classified according to how they indicate vowels:

the same way as consonants, as in Greek (true alphabet)
diacritics or modification of consonants, as in Hindi (Devanāgarī: हिन्दी ) (abugida)
not at all, as in Phoenician (abjad)
The word "alphabet" came into Middle English from the Late Latin word Alphabetum, which in turn originated in the Ancient Greek Αλφάβητος Alphabetos, from alpha and beta, the first two letters of the Greek alphabet.[1] Alpha and beta in turn came from the first two letters of the Phoenician alphabet, and meant ox and house respectively. There are dozens of alphabets in use today, the most common being Latin,[2] deriving from the first true alphabet, Greek.[3][4] Most of them are composed of lines (linear writing); notable exceptions are Braille, fingerspelling (Sign language), and Morse code.

Hide History

Main article: History of the alphabet
Middle Eastern Scripts


A specimen of Proto-Sinaitic script, one of the earliest (if not the very first) phonemic scripts
The history of the alphabet started in ancient Egypt. By 2700 BCE Egyptian writing had a set of some 24 hieroglyphs which are called uniliterals,[5] to represent syllables that begin with a single consonant of their language, plus a vowel (or no vowel) to be supplied by the native speaker. These glyphs were used as pronunciation guides for logograms, to write grammatical inflections, and, later, to transcribe loan words and foreign names.[6]

However, although seemingly alphabetic in nature, the original Egyptian uniliterals were not a system and were never used by themselves to encode Egyptian speech.[6] In the Middle Bronze Age an apparently "alphabetic" system known as the Proto-Sinaitic script is thought by some to have been developed in the Sinai peninsula during the 19th century BCE, by Canaanite workers in the Egyptian turquoise mines.[7] Others suggest the alphabet was developed in central Egypt during the 15th century BCE for or by Semitic workers, but only one of these early writings has been deciphered and their exact nature remains open to interpretation.[8] Based on letter appearances and names, it is believed to be based on Egyptian hieroglyphs.[8] This script had no characters representing vowels. An alphabetic cuneiform script with 30 signs including 3 which indicate the following vowel was invented in Ugarit before the 15th century BCE. This script was not used after the destruction of Ugarit.[9]

The Proto-Sinaitic script eventually developed into the Phoenician alphabet, which is conventionally called "Proto-Canaanite" before ca. 1050 BCE.[10] The oldest text in Phoenician script is an inscription on the sarcophagus of King Ahiram. This script is the parent script of all western alphabets. By the tenth century two other forms can be distinguished namely Canaanite and Aramaic. The Aramaic gave rise to Hebrew.[11] The South Arabian alphabet, a sister script to the Phoenician alphabet, is the script from which the Ge'ez alphabet (an abugida) is descended. Note that the scripts mentioned above are not considered proper alphabets, as they all lack characters representing vowels. These vowelless alphabets are called abjads, currently exemplified in scripts including Arabic, Hebrew, and Syriac.The omission of vowels was not a satisfactory solution and some "weak" consonants were used to indicate the vowel quality of a syllable.(matres lectionis).These had dual function since they were also used as pure consonants.[12]

The Proto-Sinatic or Proto Canaanite script and the Ugaritic script were the first scripts with limited number of signs, in contrast to the other widely used writing systems at the time, Cuneiform, Egyptian hieroglyphs, and Linear B. The Phoenecian script was probably the first phonemic script[8][10] and it contained only about two dozen distinct letters, making it a script simple enough for common traders to learn. Another advantage of Phoenician was that it could be used to write down many different languages, since it recorded words phonemically.

The script was spread by the Phoenicians, across the Mediterranean.[10] In Greece, the script was modified to add the vowels, giving rise to the ancestor of all alphabets in the West. The indication of the vowels is the same way as the indication of the consonants, therefore it was the first true alphabet. The Greeks took letters which did not represent sounds that existed in Greek, and changed them to represent the vowels. The vowels are significant in the Greek language, and the syllabical Linear B script which was used by the Mycenaean Greeks from the 16th century BCE had 87 symbols including 5 vowels. In its early years, there were many variants of the Greek alphabet, a situation which caused many different alphabets to evolve from it.

European alphabets


Codex Zographensis in the Glagolitic alphabet from Medieval Bulgaria
The Cumae form of the Greek alphabet was carried over by Greek colonists from Euboea to the Italian peninsula, where it gave rise to a variety of alphabets used to inscribe the Italic languages. One of these became the Latin alphabet, which was spread across Europe as the Romans expanded their empire. Even after the fall of the Roman state, the alphabet survived in intellectual and religious works. It eventually became used for the descendant languages of Latin (the Romance languages) and then for most of the other languages of Europe.

Another notable script is Elder Futhark, which is believed to have evolved out of one of the Old Italic alphabets. Elder Futhark gave rise to a variety of alphabets known collectively as the Runic alphabets. The Runic alphabets were used for Germanic languages from CE 100 to the late Middle Ages. Its usage was mostly restricted to engravings on stone and jewelry, although inscriptions have also been found on bone and wood. These alphabets have since been replaced with the Latin alphabet, except for decorative usage for which the runes remained in use until the 20th century.

The Glagolitic alphabet was the initial script of the liturgical language Old Church Slavonic and became, together with the Greek uncial script, the basis of the Cyrillic alphabet. The Cyrillic alphabet is one of the most widely used modern alphabets, and is notable for its use in Slavic languages and also for other languages within the former Soviet Union. Variants include the Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian, and Russian alphabets. The Glagolitic alphabet is believed to have been created by Saints Cyril and Methodius, while the Cyrillic alphabet was invented by the Bulgarian scholar Clement of Ohrid, who was their disciple. They feature many letters that appear to have been borrowed from or influenced by the Greek alphabet and the Hebrew alphabet.

Asian alphabets

Beyond the logographic Chinese writing, many phonetic scripts are in existence in Asia. The Arabic alphabet, Hebrew alphabet, Syriac alphabet, and other abjads of the Middle East are developments of the Aramaic alphabet, but because these writing systems are largely consonant-based they are often not considered true alphabets.

Most alphabetic scripts of India and Eastern Asia are descended from the Brahmi script, which is often believed to be a descendent of Aramaic.


Zhuyin on a cell phone
In Korea, the Hangul alphabet was created by Sejong the Great[13] in 1443. Understanding of the phonetic alphabet of Mongolian Phagspa script aided the creation of a phonetic script suited to the spoken Korean language.[citation needed] Mongolian Phagspa script was in turn derived from the Brahmi script. Hangul is a unique alphabet in a variety of ways: it is a featural alphabet, where many of the letters are designed from a sound's place of articulation (P to look like widened mouth, L sound to look like tongue pulled in, etc.); its design was planned by the government of the time; and it places individual letters in syllable clusters with equal dimensions, in the same way as Chinese characters, to allow for mixed script writing[citation needed] (one syllable always takes up one type-space no matter how many letters get stacked into building that one sound-block).

On December 13, 1984, Sir Charles Bessinger discovered a series of written script symbols that had been etched into granite stones that had been iced over and preserved for an expected 3500 years. The Stones of Yai-Beng, as they are referred to, were found on the border of present day Nepal and China within 20 kilometers of Xi Tao. No pronunciation was ever brought forward and no derivable meaning either. On May 21, 1992, a troop of Uzbekistani bandits stole The Stones of Yai-Beng along with several other artifacts as they made their way to Germany for an exhibition.

Zhuyin (sometimes called Bopomofo) is a semi-syllabary used to phonetically transcribe Mandarin Chinese in the Republic of China. After the later establishment of the People's Republic of China and its adoption of Hanyu Pinyin, the use of Zhuyin today is limited, but it's still widely used in Taiwan where the Republic of China still governs. Zhuyin developed out of a form of Chinese shorthand based on Chinese characters in the early 1900s and has elements of both an alphabet and a syllabary. Like an alphabet the phonemes of syllable initials are represented by individual symbols, but like a syllabary the phonemes of the syllable finals are not; rather, each possible final (excluding the medial glide) is represented by its own symbol. For example, luan is represented as ㄌㄨㄢ (l-u-an), where the last symbol ㄢ represents the entire final -an. While Zhuyin is not used as a mainstream writing system, it is still often used in ways similar to a romanization system — that is, for aiding in pronunciation and as an input method for Chinese characters on computers and cell phones.

European alphabets, especially Latin and Cyrillic, have been adapted for many languages of Asia. Arabic is also widely used, sometimes as an abjad (as with Urdu and Persian) and sometimes as a complete alphabet (as with Kurdish and Uyghur).

↑ Jump Back A Section
Hide Types


Alphabets:  Armenian ,  Cyrillic ,  Georgian ,  Greek ,  Latin ,  Latin (and Arabic ),  Latin and Cyrillic
Abjads:  Arabic ,  Hebrew
Abugidas:  North Indic ,  South Indic ,  Ge'ez ,  Tāna   Canadian Syllabic and Latin
Logographic+syllabic:  Pure logographic ,  Mixed logographic and syllabaries ,  Featural-alphabetic syllabary + limited logographic   Featural-alphabetic syllabary
History of the alphabet
Proto-Sinaitic alphabet 19 c. BCE

Ugaritic 15 c. BCE
Proto-Canaanite 14 c. BCE
Phoenician 12 c. BCE
Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE
Samaritan 6 c. BCE
Aramaic 8 c. BCE
Kharoṣṭhī 6 c. BCE
Brāhmī & Indic 6 c. BCE
Brahmic abugidas
Devanagari 13 c. CE
Hebrew 3 c. BCE
Thaana 4 c. BCE
Pahlavi 3 c. BCE
Avestan 4 c. CE
Palmyrene 2 c. BCE
Syriac 2 c. BCE
Sogdian 2 c. BCE
Orkhon (Old Turkic) 6 c. CE
Old Hungarian ca. 650
Old Uyghur
Mongolian 1204 hh
Nabataean 2 c. BCE
Arabic 4 c. CE
Mandaic 2 c. CE
Greek 8 c. BCE
Etruscan 8 c. BCE
Latin 7 c. BCE
Runic 2 c. CE
Coptic 3 c. CE
Gothic 3 c. CE
Armenian 405
Georgian (disputed) ca. 430 CE
Glagolitic 862
Cyrillic ca. 940
Paleohispanic 7 c. BCE
Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE
Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE
Meroitic 3 c. BCE
Ogham 4 c. CE
Hangul 1443
Zhuyin (Bopomofo) 1913
Complete writing systems genealogy
This box: view • talk • edit
The term "alphabet" is used by linguists and paleographers in both a wide and a narrow sense. In the wider sense, an alphabet is a script that is segmental at the phoneme level  — that is, it has separate glyphs for individual sounds and not for larger units such as syllables or words. In the narrower sense, some scholars distinguish "true" alphabets from two other types of segmental script, abjads and abugidas. These three differ from each other in the way they treat vowels: abjads have letters for consonants and leave most vowels unexpressed; abugidas are also consonant-based, but indicate vowels with diacritics to or a systematic graphic modification of the consonants. In alphabets in the narrow sense, on the other hand, consonants and vowels are written as independent letters. The earliest known alphabet in the wider sense is the Wadi el-Hol script, believed to be an abjad, which through its successor Phoenician is the ancestor of modern alphabets, including Arabic, Greek, Latin (via the Old Italic alphabet), Cyrillic (via the Greek alphabet) and Hebrew (via Aramaic).

Examples of present-day abjads are the Arabic and Hebrew scripts; true alphabets include Latin, Cyrillic, and Korean hangul; and abugidas are used to write Tigrinya Amharic, Hindi, and Thai. The Canadian Aboriginal syllabics are also an abugida rather than a syllabary as their name would imply, since each glyph stands for a consonant which is modified by rotation to represent the following vowel. (In a true syllabary, each consonant-vowel combination would be represented by a separate glyph.)

All three types may be augmented with syllabic glyphs. Ugaritic, for example, is basically an abjad, but has syllabic letters for /ʔa, ʔi, ʔu/. (These are the only time vowels are indicated.) Cyrillic is basically a true alphabet, but has syllabic letters for /ja, je, ju/ (я, е, ю); Coptic has a letter for /ti/. Devanagari is typically an abugida augmented with dedicated letters for initial vowels, though some traditions use अ as a zero consonant as the graphic base for such vowels.

The boundaries between the three types of segmental scripts are not always clear-cut. For example, Sorani Kurdish is written in the Arabic script, which is normally an abjad. However, in Kurdish, writing the vowels is mandatory, and full letters are used, so the script is a true alphabet. Other languages may use a Semitic abjad with mandatory vowel diacritics, effectively making them abugidas. On the other hand, the Phagspa script of the Mongol Empire was based closely on the Tibetan abugida, but all vowel marks were written after the preceding consonant rather than as diacritic marks. Although short a was not written, as in the Indic abugidas, one could argue that the linear arrangement made this a true alphabet. Conversely, the vowel marks of the Tigrinya abugida and the Amharic abugida (ironically, the original source of the term "abugida") have been so completely assimilated into their consonants that the modifications are no longer systematic and have to be learned as a syllabary rather than as a segmental script. Even more extreme, the Pahlavi abjad eventually became logographic. (See below.)

Thus the primary classification of alphabets reflects how they treat vowels. For tonal languages, further classification can be based on their treatment of tone, though names do not yet exist to distinguish the various types. Some alphabets disregard tone entirely, especially when it does not carry a heavy functional load, as in Somali and many other languages of Africa and the Americas. Such scripts are to tone what abjads are to vowels. Most commonly, tones are indicated with diacritics, the way vowels are treated in abugidas. This is the case for Vietnamese (a true alphabet) and Thai (an abugida). In Thai, tone is determined primarily by the choice of consonant, with diacritics for disambiguation. In the Pollard script, an abugida, vowels are indicated by diacritics, but the placement of the diacritic relative to the consonant is modified to indicate the tone. More rarely, a script may have separate letters for tones, as is the case for Hmong and Zhuang. For most of these scripts, regardless of whether letters or diacritics are used, the most common tone is not marked, just as the most common vowel is not marked in Indic abugidas; in Zhuyin not only is one of the tones unmarked, but there is a diacritic to indicate lack of tone, like the virama of Indic.

The number of letters in an alphabet can be quite small. The Book Pahlavi script, an abjad, had only twelve letters at one point, and may have had even fewer later on. Today the Rotokas alphabet has only twelve letters. (The Hawaiian alphabet is sometimes claimed to be as small, but it actually consists of 18 letters, including the ʻokina and five long vowels.) While Rotokas has a small alphabet because it has few phonemes to represent (just eleven), Book Pahlavi was small because many letters had been conflated — that is, the graphic distinctions had been lost over time, and diacritics were not developed to compensate for this as they were in Arabic, another script that lost many of its distinct letter shapes. For example, a comma-shaped letter represented g, d, y, k, or j. However, such apparent simplifications can perversely make a script more complicated. In later Pahlavi papyri, up to half of the remaining graphic distinctions of these twelve letters were lost, and the script could no longer be read as a sequence of letters at all, but instead each word had to be learned as a whole — that is, they had become logograms as in Egyptian Demotic.

The largest segmental script is probably an abugida, Devanagari. When written in Devanagari, Vedic Sanskrit has an alphabet of 53 letters, including the visarga mark for final aspiration and special letters for kš and jñ, though one of the letters is theoretical and not actually used. The Hindi alphabet must represent both Sanskrit and modern vocabulary, and so has been expanded to 58 with the khutma letters (letters with a dot added) to represent sounds from Persian and English.

The largest known abjad is Sindhi, with 51 letters. The largest alphabets in the narrow sense include Kabardian and Abkhaz (for Cyrillic), with 58 and 56 letters, respectively, and Slovak (for the Latin alphabet), with 46. However, these scripts either count di- and tri-graphs as separate letters, as Spanish did with ch and ll until recently, or uses diacritics like Slovak č. The largest true alphabet where each letter is graphically independent is probably Georgian, with 41 letters.

Syllabaries typically contain 50 to 400 glyphs (though the Múra-Pirahã language of Brazil would require only 24 if it did not denote tone, and Rotokas would require only 30), and the glyphs of logographic systems typically number from the many hundreds into the thousands. Thus a simple count of the number of distinct symbols is an important clue to the nature of an unknown script.

↑ Jump Back A Section
Hide Alphabetic order

It is not always clear what constitutes a distinct alphabet. French uses the same basic alphabet as English, but many of the letters can carry additional marks, such as é, à, and ô. In French, these combinations are not considered to be additional letters. However, in Icelandic, the accented letters such as á, í, and ö are considered to be distinct letters of the alphabet. In Spanish, ñ is considered a separate letter, but accented vowels such as á and é are not. The ll and ch are also considered single letters, but in 1994 the Real Academia Española changed collating order so that ll is between lk and lm in the dictionary and ch is between cg and ci.[14]

In German, words starting with sch- (constituting the German phoneme /ʃ/) would be intercalated between words with initial sca- and sci- (all incidentally loanwords) instead of this graphic cluster appearing after the letter s, as though it were a single letter – a lexicographical policy which would be de rigueur in a dictionary of Albanian, i.e. dh-, gj-, ll-, rr-, th-, xh- and zh- (all representing phonemes and considered separate single letters) would follow the letters d, g, l, n, r, t, x and z respectively. Nor is, in a dictionary of English, the lexical section with initial th- reserved a place after the letter t, but is inserted between te- and ti-. German words with umlaut would further be alphabetized as if there were no umlaut at all – contrary to Turkish which allegedly adopted the German graphemes ö and ü, and where a word like tüfek, "gun", would come after tuz, "salt", in the dictionary.

The Danish and Norwegian alphabets end with æ – ø – å, whereas the Swedish and the Finnish ones conventionally put å – ä – ö at the end.

Some adaptations of the Latin alphabet are augmented with ligatures, such as æ in Old English and Icelandic and Ȣ in Algonquian; by borrowings from other alphabets, such as the thorn þ in Old English and Icelandic, which came from the Futhark runes; and by modifying existing letters, such as the eth ð of Old English and Icelandic, which is a modified d. Other alphabets only use a subset of the Latin alphabet, such as Hawaiian, and Italian, which uses the letters j, k, x, y and w only in foreign words.

It is unknown whether the earliest alphabets had a defined sequence. Some alphabets today, such as the Hanuno'o script, are learned one letter at a time, in no particular order, and are not used for collation where a definite order is required. However, a dozen Ugaritic tablets from the fourteenth century BCE preserve the alphabet in two sequences. One, the ABCDE order later used in Phoenician, has continued with minor changes in Hebrew, Greek, Armenian, Gothic, Cyrillic, and Latin; the other, HMĦLQ, was used in southern Arabia and is preserved today in Ethiopic.[15] Both orders have therefore been stable for at least 3000 years.

The historical order was abandoned in Runic and Arabic, although Arabic retains the traditional "abjadi order" for numbering.

The Brahmic family of alphabets used in India use a unique order based on phonology: The letters are arranged according to how and where they are produced in the mouth. This organization is used in Southeast Asia, Tibet, Korean hangul, and even Japanese kana, which is not an alphabet.

The Phoenician letter names, in which each letter is associated with a word that begins with that sound, continue to be used in Samaritan, Aramaic, Syriac, Hebrew, and Greek. However, they were abandoned in Arabic, Cyrillic and Latin.

↑ Jump Back A Section
Hide Orthography and spelling

Main articles: Orthography and Spelling
Each language may establish rules that govern the association between letters and phonemes, but, depending on the language, these rules may or may not be consistently followed. In a perfectly phonological alphabet, the phonemes and letters would correspond perfectly in two directions: a writer could predict the spelling of a word given its pronunciation, and a speaker could predict the pronunciation of a word given its spelling.

However, languages often evolve independently of their writing systems, and writing systems have been borrowed for languages they were not designed for, so the degree to which letters of an alphabet correspond to phonemes of a language varies greatly from one language to another and even within a single language.

Languages may fail to achieve a one-to-one correspondence between letters and sounds in any of several ways:

A language may represent a given phoneme with a combination of letters rather than just a single letter. Two-letter combinations are called digraphs and three-letter groups are called trigraphs. German uses the tesseragraphs (four letters) "tsch" for the phoneme [tʃ] and "dsch" for [dʒ], although the latter is rare. Kabardian also uses a tesseragraph for one of its phonemes.
A language may represent the same phoneme with two different letters or combinations of letters. An example is modern Greek which may write the phoneme in six different ways: "ι", "η", "υ", "ει", "οι" and "υι" (although the last is very rare).
A language may spell some words with unpronounced letters that exist for historical or other reasons. For example, the spelling of the Thai word for "beer" [เบียร์] retains a letter for the final consonant 'r' present in the English word it was borrowed from, but silences it. Otherwise, according to Thai pronunciation rules, the word might be pronounced more like "bean."
Pronunciation of individual words may change according to the presence of surrounding words in a sentence (sandhi).
Different dialects of a language may use different phonemes for the same word.
A language may use different sets of symbols or different rules for distinct sets of vocabulary items, such as the Japanese hiragana and katakana syllabaries, or the various rules in English for spelling words from Latin and Greek, or the original Germanic vocabulary.
National languages generally elect to address the problem of dialects by simply associating the alphabet with the national standard. However, with an international language with wide variations in its dialects, such as English, it would be impossible to represent the language in all its variations with a single phonetic alphabet.

Some national languages like Finnish, Turkish and Bulgarian have a very regular spelling system with a nearly one-to-one correspondence between letters and phonemes. Strictly speaking, there is no word in the Finnish, Turkish and Bulgarian languages corresponding to the verb "to spell" (meaning to split a word into its letters), the closest match being a verb meaning to split a word into its syllables. Similarly, the Italian verb corresponding to 'spell', compitare, is unknown to many Italians because the act of spelling itself is almost never needed: each phoneme of Standard Italian is represented in only one way. However, pronunciation cannot always be predicted from spelling in cases of irregular syllabic stress. In standard Spanish, it is possible to tell the pronunciation of a word from its spelling, but not vice versa; this is because certain phonemes can be represented in more than one way, but a given letter is consistently pronounced. French, with its silent letters and its heavy use of nasal vowels and elision, may seem to lack much correspondence between spelling and pronunciation, but its rules on pronunciation are actually consistent and predictable with a fair degree of accuracy.

At the other extreme, are languages such as English, where the spelling of many words simply has to be memorized as they do not correspond to sounds in a consistent way. For English, this is partly because the Great Vowel Shift occurred after the orthography was established, and because English has acquired a large number of loanwords at different times, retaining their original spelling at varying levels. Even English has general, albeit complex, rules that predict pronunciation from spelling, and these rules are successful most of the time; rules to predict spelling from the pronunciation have a higher failure rate.

Sometimes, countries have the written language undergo a spelling reform to realign the writing with the contemporary spoken language. These can range from simple spelling changes and word forms to switching the entire writing system itself, as when Turkey switched from the Arabic alphabet to the Roman alphabet.

The sounds of speech of all languages of the world can be written by a rather small universal phonetic alphabet. A standard for this is the International Phonetic Alphabet.

↑ Jump Back A Section
Hide See also

ABC-DEF-GHI
Abecedarium
Acrophony
Akshara
Alphabet Effect
Alphabet song
Alphabetical order
Alphabetize
Butterfly Alphabet
Character encoding
Constructed script
English alphabet
ICAO spelling alphabet
Lipogram
List of alphabets
Pangram
Transliteration
Unicode
↑ Jump Back A Section
Hide References

^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online – Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary
^ Haarmann 2004, p. 96
^ Coulmas, Florian (1996). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-21481-X.
^ Millard 1986, p. 396
^ "The Development of the Western Alphabet". h2g2. BBC. 2004-04-08. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
^ a b Daniels and Bright (1996), pp. 74–75
^ "Goldwasser, O. "How the Alphabet Was Born from Hieroglyphs", Biblical Archaeology Review 36, No. 2, (March/April 2010): 40-53.".
^ a b c Coulmas (1989), p. 140-141
^ Ugaritic Writing online
^ a b c Daniels and Bright (1996), pp 92-96
^ "Coulmas"(1989),p.142
^ "Coulmas"(1989) p.147
^ "上親制諺文二十八字…是謂訓民正音(His majesty created 28 characters himself... It is Hunminjeongeum (original name for Hangul)", 《세종실록 (The Annals of the Choson Dynasty : Sejong)》 25년 12월.
^ Real Academia Española. "Spanish Pronto!: Spanish Alphabet." Spanish Pronto! 22 April 2007. January 2009 Spanish Pronto: Spanish < > English Medical Translators.
^ Millard, A.R. "The Infancy of the Alphabet", World Archaeology 17, No. 3, Early Writing Systems (February 1986): 390–398. page 395.
↑ Jump Back A Section
Show Bibliography

Show External links

Source - Michał Kalina.
« Last Edit: November 26, 2010, 05:57:22 PM by Michał Kalina » Logged
stanley123
Protokentarchos
*********
Offline Offline

Faith: Catholic
Jurisdiction: Roman Catholic
Posts: 3,809


« Reply #868 on: November 24, 2010, 11:49:38 PM »

For other uses, see Alphabet (disambiguation).

A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia.

Writing systems
History
Grapheme
List of writing systems
Types
Featural alphabet
Alphabet
Abjad
Abugida
Syllabary
Logography
Related topics
Pictogram
Ideogram
An alphabet is a standardized set of letters—basic written symbols or graphemes—each of which roughly represents a phoneme in a spoken language, either as it exists now or as it was in the past. There are other systems, such as logographies, in which each character represents a word, morpheme, or semantic unit, and syllabaries, in which each character represents a syllable. Alphabets are classified according to how they indicate vowels:

the same way as consonants, as in Greek (true alphabet)
diacritics or modification of consonants, as in Hindi (Devanāgarī: हिन्दी ) (abugida)
not at all, as in Phoenician (abjad)
The word "alphabet" came into Middle English from the Late Latin word Alphabetum, which in turn originated in the Ancient Greek Αλφάβητος Alphabetos, from alpha and beta, the first two letters of the Greek alphabet.[1] Alpha and beta in turn came from the first two letters of the Phoenician alphabet, and meant ox and house respectively. There are dozens of alphabets in use today, the most common being Latin,[2] deriving from the first true alphabet, Greek.[3][4] Most of them are composed of lines (linear writing); notable exceptions are Braille, fingerspelling (Sign language), and Morse code.

Hide History

Main article: History of the alphabet
Middle Eastern Scripts


A specimen of Proto-Sinaitic script, one of the earliest (if not the very first) phonemic scripts
The history of the alphabet started in ancient Egypt. By 2700 BCE Egyptian writing had a set of some 24 hieroglyphs which are called uniliterals,[5] to represent syllables that begin with a single consonant of their language, plus a vowel (or no vowel) to be supplied by the native speaker. These glyphs were used as pronunciation guides for logograms, to write grammatical inflections, and, later, to transcribe loan words and foreign names.[6]

However, although seemingly alphabetic in nature, the original Egyptian uniliterals were not a system and were never used by themselves to encode Egyptian speech.[6] In the Middle Bronze Age an apparently "alphabetic" system known as the Proto-Sinaitic script is thought by some to have been developed in the Sinai peninsula during the 19th century BCE, by Canaanite workers in the Egyptian turquoise mines.[7] Others suggest the alphabet was developed in central Egypt during the 15th century BCE for or by Semitic workers, but only one of these early writings has been deciphered and their exact nature remains open to interpretation.[8] Based on letter appearances and names, it is believed to be based on Egyptian hieroglyphs.[8] This script had no characters representing vowels. An alphabetic cuneiform script with 30 signs including 3 which indicate the following vowel was invented in Ugarit before the 15th century BCE. This script was not used after the destruction of Ugarit.[9]

The Proto-Sinaitic script eventually developed into the Phoenician alphabet, which is conventionally called "Proto-Canaanite" before ca. 1050 BCE.[10] The oldest text in Phoenician script is an inscription on the sarcophagus of King Ahiram. This script is the parent script of all western alphabets. By the tenth century two other forms can be distinguished namely Canaanite and Aramaic. The Aramaic gave rise to Hebrew.[11] The South Arabian alphabet, a sister script to the Phoenician alphabet, is the script from which the Ge'ez alphabet (an abugida) is descended. Note that the scripts mentioned above are not considered proper alphabets, as they all lack characters representing vowels. These vowelless alphabets are called abjads, currently exemplified in scripts including Arabic, Hebrew, and Syriac.The omission of vowels was not a satisfactory solution and some "weak" consonants were used to indicate the vowel quality of a syllable.(matres lectionis).These had dual function since they were also used as pure consonants.[12]

The Proto-Sinatic or Proto Canaanite script and the Ugaritic script were the first scripts with limited number of signs, in contrast to the other widely used writing systems at the time, Cuneiform, Egyptian hieroglyphs, and Linear B. The Phoenecian script was probably the first phonemic script[8][10] and it contained only about two dozen distinct letters, making it a script simple enough for common traders to learn. Another advantage of Phoenician was that it could be used to write down many different languages, since it recorded words phonemically.

The script was spread by the Phoenicians, across the Mediterranean.[10] In Greece, the script was modified to add the vowels, giving rise to the ancestor of all alphabets in the West. The indication of the vowels is the same way as the indication of the consonants, therefore it was the first true alphabet. The Greeks took letters which did not represent sounds that existed in Greek, and changed them to represent the vowels. The vowels are significant in the Greek language, and the syllabical Linear B script which was used by the Mycenaean Greeks from the 16th century BCE had 87 symbols including 5 vowels. In its early years, there were many variants of the Greek alphabet, a situation which caused many different alphabets to evolve from it.

European alphabets


Codex Zographensis in the Glagolitic alphabet from Medieval Bulgaria
The Cumae form of the Greek alphabet was carried over by Greek colonists from Euboea to the Italian peninsula, where it gave rise to a variety of alphabets used to inscribe the Italic languages. One of these became the Latin alphabet, which was spread across Europe as the Romans expanded their empire. Even after the fall of the Roman state, the alphabet survived in intellectual and religious works. It eventually became used for the descendant languages of Latin (the Romance languages) and then for most of the other languages of Europe.

Another notable script is Elder Futhark, which is believed to have evolved out of one of the Old Italic alphabets. Elder Futhark gave rise to a variety of alphabets known collectively as the Runic alphabets. The Runic alphabets were used for Germanic languages from CE 100 to the late Middle Ages. Its usage was mostly restricted to engravings on stone and jewelry, although inscriptions have also been found on bone and wood. These alphabets have since been replaced with the Latin alphabet, except for decorative usage for which the runes remained in use until the 20th century.

The Glagolitic alphabet was the initial script of the liturgical language Old Church Slavonic and became, together with the Greek uncial script, the basis of the Cyrillic alphabet. The Cyrillic alphabet is one of the most widely used modern alphabets, and is notable for its use in Slavic languages and also for other languages within the former Soviet Union. Variants include the Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian, and Russian alphabets. The Glagolitic alphabet is believed to have been created by Saints Cyril and Methodius, while the Cyrillic alphabet was invented by the Bulgarian scholar Clement of Ohrid, who was their disciple. They feature many letters that appear to have been borrowed from or influenced by the Greek alphabet and the Hebrew alphabet.

Asian alphabets

Beyond the logographic Chinese writing, many phonetic scripts are in existence in Asia. The Arabic alphabet, Hebrew alphabet, Syriac alphabet, and other abjads of the Middle East are developments of the Aramaic alphabet, but because these writing systems are largely consonant-based they are often not considered true alphabets.

Most alphabetic scripts of India and Eastern Asia are descended from the Brahmi script, which is often believed to be a descendent of Aramaic.


Zhuyin on a cell phone
In Korea, the Hangul alphabet was created by Sejong the Great[13] in 1443. Understanding of the phonetic alphabet of Mongolian Phagspa script aided the creation of a phonetic script suited to the spoken Korean language.[citation needed] Mongolian Phagspa script was in turn derived from the Brahmi script. Hangul is a unique alphabet in a variety of ways: it is a featural alphabet, where many of the letters are designed from a sound's place of articulation (P to look like widened mouth, L sound to look like tongue pulled in, etc.); its design was planned by the government of the time; and it places individual letters in syllable clusters with equal dimensions, in the same way as Chinese characters, to allow for mixed script writing[citation needed] (one syllable always takes up one type-space no matter how many letters get stacked into building that one sound-block).

On December 13, 1984, Sir Charles Bessinger discovered a series of written script symbols that had been etched into granite stones that had been iced over and preserved for an expected 3500 years. The Stones of Yai-Beng, as they are referred to, were found on the border of present day Nepal and China within 20 kilometers of Xi Tao. No pronunciation was ever brought forward and no derivable meaning either. On May 21, 1992, a troop of Uzbekistani bandits stole The Stones of Yai-Beng along with several other artifacts as they made their way to Germany for an exhibition.

Zhuyin (sometimes called Bopomofo) is a semi-syllabary used to phonetically transcribe Mandarin Chinese in the Republic of China. After the later establishment of the People's Republic of China and its adoption of Hanyu Pinyin, the use of Zhuyin today is limited, but it's still widely used in Taiwan where the Republic of China still governs. Zhuyin developed out of a form of Chinese shorthand based on Chinese characters in the early 1900s and has elements of both an alphabet and a syllabary. Like an alphabet the phonemes of syllable initials are represented by individual symbols, but like a syllabary the phonemes of the syllable finals are not; rather, each possible final (excluding the medial glide) is represented by its own symbol. For example, luan is represented as ㄌㄨㄢ (l-u-an), where the last symbol ㄢ represents the entire final -an. While Zhuyin is not used as a mainstream writing system, it is still often used in ways similar to a romanization system — that is, for aiding in pronunciation and as an input method for Chinese characters on computers and cell phones.

European alphabets, especially Latin and Cyrillic, have been adapted for many languages of Asia. Arabic is also widely used, sometimes as an abjad (as with Urdu and Persian) and sometimes as a complete alphabet (as with Kurdish and Uyghur).

↑ Jump Back A Section
Hide Types


Alphabets:  Armenian ,  Cyrillic ,  Georgian ,  Greek ,  Latin ,  Latin (and Arabic ),  Latin and Cyrillic 
Abjads:  Arabic ,  Hebrew 
Abugidas:  North Indic ,  South Indic ,  Ge'ez ,  Tāna   Canadian Syllabic and Latin 
Logographic+syllabic:  Pure logographic ,  Mixed logographic and syllabaries ,  Featural-alphabetic syllabary + limited logographic   Featural-alphabetic syllabary 
History of the alphabet
Proto-Sinaitic alphabet 19 c. BCE

Ugaritic 15 c. BCE
Proto-Canaanite 14 c. BCE
Phoenician 12 c. BCE
Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE
Samaritan 6 c. BCE
Aramaic 8 c. BCE
Kharoṣṭhī 6 c. BCE
Brāhmī & Indic 6 c. BCE
Brahmic abugidas
Devanagari 13 c. CE
Hebrew 3 c. BCE
Thaana 4 c. BCE
Pahlavi 3 c. BCE
Avestan 4 c. CE
Palmyrene 2 c. BCE
Syriac 2 c. BCE
Sogdian 2 c. BCE
Orkhon (Old Turkic) 6 c. CE
Old Hungarian ca. 650
Old Uyghur
Mongolian 1204 hh
Nabataean 2 c. BCE
Arabic 4 c. CE
Mandaic 2 c. CE
Greek 8 c. BCE
Etruscan 8 c. BCE
Latin 7 c. BCE
Runic 2 c. CE
Coptic 3 c. CE
Gothic 3 c. CE
Armenian 405
Georgian (disputed) ca. 430 CE
Glagolitic 862
Cyrillic ca. 940
Paleohispanic 7 c. BCE
Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE
Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE
Meroitic 3 c. BCE
Ogham 4 c. CE
Hangul 1443
Zhuyin (Bopomofo) 1913
Complete writing systems genealogy
This box: view • talk • edit
The term "alphabet" is used by linguists and paleographers in both a wide and a narrow sense. In the wider sense, an alphabet is a script that is segmental at the phoneme level  — that is, it has separate glyphs for individual sounds and not for larger units such as syllables or words. In the narrower sense, some scholars distinguish "true" alphabets from two other types of segmental script, abjads and abugidas. These three differ from each other in the way they treat vowels: abjads have letters for consonants and leave most vowels unexpressed; abugidas are also consonant-based, but indicate vowels with diacritics to or a systematic graphic modification of the consonants. In alphabets in the narrow sense, on the other hand, consonants and vowels are written as independent letters. The earliest known alphabet in the wider sense is the Wadi el-Hol script, believed to be an abjad, which through its successor Phoenician is the ancestor of modern alphabets, including Arabic, Greek, Latin (via the Old Italic alphabet), Cyrillic (via the Greek alphabet) and Hebrew (via Aramaic).

Examples of present-day abjads are the Arabic and Hebrew scripts; true alphabets include Latin, Cyrillic, and Korean hangul; and abugidas are used to write Tigrinya Amharic, Hindi, and Thai. The Canadian Aboriginal syllabics are also an abugida rather than a syllabary as their name would imply, since each glyph stands for a consonant which is modified by rotation to represent the following vowel. (In a true syllabary, each consonant-vowel combination would be represented by a separate glyph.)

All three types may be augmented with syllabic glyphs. Ugaritic, for example, is basically an abjad, but has syllabic letters for /ʔa, ʔi, ʔu/. (These are the only time vowels are indicated.) Cyrillic is basically a true alphabet, but has syllabic letters for /ja, je, ju/ (я, е, ю); Coptic has a letter for /ti/. Devanagari is typically an abugida augmented with dedicated letters for initial vowels, though some traditions use अ as a zero consonant as the graphic base for such vowels.

The boundaries between the three types of segmental scripts are not always clear-cut. For example, Sorani Kurdish is written in the Arabic script, which is normally an abjad. However, in Kurdish, writing the vowels is mandatory, and full letters are used, so the script is a true alphabet. Other languages may use a Semitic abjad with mandatory vowel diacritics, effectively making them abugidas. On the other hand, the Phagspa script of the Mongol Empire was based closely on the Tibetan abugida, but all vowel marks were written after the preceding consonant rather than as diacritic marks. Although short a was not written, as in the Indic abugidas, one could argue that the linear arrangement made this a true alphabet. Conversely, the vowel marks of the Tigrinya abugida and the Amharic abugida (ironically, the original source of the term "abugida") have been so completely assimilated into their consonants that the modifications are no longer systematic and have to be learned as a syllabary rather than as a segmental script. Even more extreme, the Pahlavi abjad eventually became logographic. (See below.)

Thus the primary classification of alphabets reflects how they treat vowels. For tonal languages, further classification can be based on their treatment of tone, though names do not yet exist to distinguish the various types. Some alphabets disregard tone entirely, especially when it does not carry a heavy functional load, as in Somali and many other languages of Africa and the Americas. Such scripts are to tone what abjads are to vowels. Most commonly, tones are indicated with diacritics, the way vowels are treated in abugidas. This is the case for Vietnamese (a true alphabet) and Thai (an abugida). In Thai, tone is determined primarily by the choice of consonant, with diacritics for disambiguation. In the Pollard script, an abugida, vowels are indicated by diacritics, but the placement of the diacritic relative to the consonant is modified to indicate the tone. More rarely, a script may have separate letters for tones, as is the case for Hmong and Zhuang. For most of these scripts, regardless of whether letters or diacritics are used, the most common tone is not marked, just as the most common vowel is not marked in Indic abugidas; in Zhuyin not only is one of the tones unmarked, but there is a diacritic to indicate lack of tone, like the virama of Indic.

The number of letters in an alphabet can be quite small. The Book Pahlavi script, an abjad, had only twelve letters at one point, and may have had even fewer later on. Today the Rotokas alphabet has only twelve letters. (The Hawaiian alphabet is sometimes claimed to be as small, but it actually consists of 18 letters, including the ʻokina and five long vowels.) While Rotokas has a small alphabet because it has few phonemes to represent (just eleven), Book Pahlavi was small because many letters had been conflated — that is, the graphic distinctions had been lost over time, and diacritics were not developed to compensate for this as they were in Arabic, another script that lost many of its distinct letter shapes. For example, a comma-shaped letter represented g, d, y, k, or j. However, such apparent simplifications can perversely make a script more complicated. In later Pahlavi papyri, up to half of the remaining graphic distinctions of these twelve letters were lost, and the script could no longer be read as a sequence of letters at all, but instead each word had to be learned as a whole — that is, they had become logograms as in Egyptian Demotic.

The largest segmental script is probably an abugida, Devanagari. When written in Devanagari, Vedic Sanskrit has an alphabet of 53 letters, including the visarga mark for final aspiration and special letters for kš and jñ, though one of the letters is theoretical and not actually used. The Hindi alphabet must represent both Sanskrit and modern vocabulary, and so has been expanded to 58 with the khutma letters (letters with a dot added) to represent sounds from Persian and English.

The largest known abjad is Sindhi, with 51 letters. The largest alphabets in the narrow sense include Kabardian and Abkhaz (for Cyrillic), with 58 and 56 letters, respectively, and Slovak (for the Latin alphabet), with 46. However, these scripts either count di- and tri-graphs as separate letters, as Spanish did with ch and ll until recently, or uses diacritics like Slovak č. The largest true alphabet where each letter is graphically independent is probably Georgian, with 41 letters.

Syllabaries typically contain 50 to 400 glyphs (though the Múra-Pirahã language of Brazil would require only 24 if it did not denote tone, and Rotokas would require only 30), and the glyphs of logographic systems typically number from the many hundreds into the thousands. Thus a simple count of the number of distinct symbols is an important clue to the nature of an unknown script.

↑ Jump Back A Section
Hide Alphabetic order

It is not always clear what constitutes a distinct alphabet. French uses the same basic alphabet as English, but many of the letters can carry additional marks, such as é, à, and ô. In French, these combinations are not considered to be additional letters. However, in Icelandic, the accented letters such as á, í, and ö are considered to be distinct letters of the alphabet. In Spanish, ñ is considered a separate letter, but accented vowels such as á and é are not. The ll and ch are also considered single letters, but in 1994 the Real Academia Española changed collating order so that ll is between lk and lm in the dictionary and ch is between cg and ci.[14]

In German, words starting with sch- (constituting the German phoneme /ʃ/) would be intercalated between words with initial sca- and sci- (all incidentally loanwords) instead of this graphic cluster appearing after the letter s, as though it were a single letter – a lexicographical policy which would be de rigueur in a dictionary of Albanian, i.e. dh-, gj-, ll-, rr-, th-, xh- and zh- (all representing phonemes and considered separate single letters) would follow the letters d, g, l, n, r, t, x and z respectively. Nor is, in a dictionary of English, the lexical section with initial th- reserved a place after the letter t, but is inserted between te- and ti-. German words with umlaut would further be alphabetized as if there were no umlaut at all – contrary to Turkish which allegedly adopted the German graphemes ö and ü, and where a word like tüfek, "gun", would come after tuz, "salt", in the dictionary.

The Danish and Norwegian alphabets end with æ – ø – å, whereas the Swedish and the Finnish ones conventionally put å – ä – ö at the end.

Some adaptations of the Latin alphabet are augmented with ligatures, such as æ in Old English and Icelandic and Ȣ in Algonquian; by borrowings from other alphabets, such as the thorn þ in Old English and Icelandic, which came from the Futhark runes; and by modifying existing letters, such as the eth ð of Old English and Icelandic, which is a modified d. Other alphabets only use a subset of the Latin alphabet, such as Hawaiian, and Italian, which uses the letters j, k, x, y and w only in foreign words.

It is unknown whether the earliest alphabets had a defined sequence. Some alphabets today, such as the Hanuno'o script, are learned one letter at a time, in no particular order, and are not used for collation where a definite order is required. However, a dozen Ugaritic tablets from the fourteenth century BCE preserve the alphabet in two sequences. One, the ABCDE order later used in Phoenician, has continued with minor changes in Hebrew, Greek, Armenian, Gothic, Cyrillic, and Latin; the other, HMĦLQ, was used in southern Arabia and is preserved today in Ethiopic.[15] Both orders have therefore been stable for at least 3000 years.

The historical order was abandoned in Runic and Arabic, although Arabic retains the traditional "abjadi order" for numbering.

The Brahmic family of alphabets used in India use a unique order based on phonology: The letters are arranged according to how and where they are produced in the mouth. This organization is used in Southeast Asia, Tibet, Korean hangul, and even Japanese kana, which is not an alphabet.

The Phoenician letter names, in which each letter is associated with a word that begins with that sound, continue to be used in Samaritan, Aramaic, Syriac, Hebrew, and Greek. However, they were abandoned in Arabic, Cyrillic and Latin.

↑ Jump Back A Section
Hide Orthography and spelling

Main articles: Orthography and Spelling
Each language may establish rules that govern the association between letters and phonemes, but, depending on the language, these rules may or may not be consistently followed. In a perfectly phonological alphabet, the phonemes and letters would correspond perfectly in two directions: a writer could predict the spelling of a word given its pronunciation, and a speaker could predict the pronunciation of a word given its spelling.

However, languages often evolve independently of their writing systems, and writing systems have been borrowed for languages they were not designed for, so the degree to which letters of an alphabet correspond to phonemes of a language varies greatly from one language to another and even within a single language.

Languages may fail to achieve a one-to-one correspondence between letters and sounds in any of several ways:

A language may represent a given phoneme with a combination of letters rather than just a single letter. Two-letter combinations are called digraphs and three-letter groups are called trigraphs. German uses the tesseragraphs (four letters) "tsch" for the phoneme [tʃ] and "dsch" for [dʒ], although the latter is rare. Kabardian also uses a tesseragraph for one of its phonemes.
A language may represent the same phoneme with two different letters or combinations of letters. An example is modern Greek which may write the phoneme in six different ways: "ι", "η", "υ", "ει", "οι" and "υι" (although the last is very rare).
A language may spell some words with unpronounced letters that exist for historical or other reasons. For example, the spelling of the Thai word for "beer" [เบียร์] retains a letter for the final consonant 'r' present in the English word it was borrowed from, but silences it. Otherwise, according to Thai pronunciation rules, the word might be pronounced more like "bean."
Pronunciation of individual words may change according to the presence of surrounding words in a sentence (sandhi).
Different dialects of a language may use different phonemes for the same word.
A language may use different sets of symbols or different rules for distinct sets of vocabulary items, such as the Japanese hiragana and katakana syllabaries, or the various rules in English for spelling words from Latin and Greek, or the original Germanic vocabulary.
National languages generally elect to address the problem of dialects by simply associating the alphabet with the national standard. However, with an international language with wide variations in its dialects, such as English, it would be impossible to represent the language in all its variations with a single phonetic alphabet.

Some national languages like Finnish, Turkish and Bulgarian have a very regular spelling system with a nearly one-to-one correspondence between letters and phonemes. Strictly speaking, there is no word in the Finnish, Turkish and Bulgarian languages corresponding to the verb "to spell" (meaning to split a word into its letters), the closest match being a verb meaning to split a word into its syllables. Similarly, the Italian verb corresponding to 'spell', compitare, is unknown to many Italians because the act of spelling itself is almost never needed: each phoneme of Standard Italian is represented in only one way. However, pronunciation cannot always be predicted from spelling in cases of irregular syllabic stress. In standard Spanish, it is possible to tell the pronunciation of a word from its spelling, but not vice versa; this is because certain phonemes can be represented in more than one way, but a given letter is consistently pronounced. French, with its silent letters and its heavy use of nasal vowels and elision, may seem to lack much correspondence between spelling and pronunciation, but its rules on pronunciation are actually consistent and predictable with a fair degree of accuracy.

At the other extreme, are languages such as English, where the spelling of many words simply has to be memorized as they do not correspond to sounds in a consistent way. For English, this is partly because the Great Vowel Shift occurred after the orthography was established, and because English has acquired a large number of loanwords at different times, retaining their original spelling at varying levels. Even English has general, albeit complex, rules that predict pronunciation from spelling, and these rules are successful most of the time; rules to predict spelling from the pronunciation have a higher failure rate.

Sometimes, countries have the written language undergo a spelling reform to realign the writing with the contemporary spoken language. These can range from simple spelling changes and word forms to switching the entire writing system itself, as when Turkey switched from the Arabic alphabet to the Roman alphabet.

The sounds of speech of all languages of the world can be written by a rather small universal phonetic alphabet. A standard for this is the International Phonetic Alphabet.

↑ Jump Back A Section
Hide See also

ABC-DEF-GHI
Abecedarium
Acrophony
Akshara
Alphabet Effect
Alphabet song
Alphabetical order
Alphabetize
Butterfly Alphabet
Character encoding
Constructed script
English alphabet
ICAO spelling alphabet
Lipogram
List of alphabets
Pangram
Transliteration
Unicode
↑ Jump Back A Section
Hide References

^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online – Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary
^ Haarmann 2004, p. 96
^ Coulmas, Florian (1996). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-21481-X.
^ Millard 1986, p. 396
^ "The Development of the Western Alphabet". h2g2. BBC. 2004-04-08. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
^ a b Daniels and Bright (1996), pp. 74–75
^ "Goldwasser, O. "How the Alphabet Was Born from Hieroglyphs", Biblical Archaeology Review 36, No. 2, (March/April 2010): 40-53.".
^ a b c Coulmas (1989), p. 140-141
^ Ugaritic Writing online
^ a b c Daniels and Bright (1996), pp 92-96
^ "Coulmas"(1989),p.142
^ "Coulmas"(1989) p.147
^ "上親制諺文二十八字…是謂訓民正音(His majesty created 28 characters himself... It is Hunminjeongeum (original name for Hangul)", 《세종실록 (The Annals of the Choson Dynasty : Sejong)》 25년 12월.
^ Real Academia Española. "Spanish Pronto!: Spanish Alphabet." Spanish Pronto! 22 April 2007. January 2009 Spanish Pronto: Spanish < > English Medical Translators.
^ Millard, A.R. "The Infancy of the Alphabet", World Archaeology 17, No. 3, Early Writing Systems (February 1986): 390–398. page 395.
↑ Jump Back A Section
Show Bibliography

Show External links

How would this relate to the unification of Hinduism and Christianity?
Logged
Iconodule
Uranopolitan
Taxiarches
**********
Offline Offline

Faith: Orthodox Christian
Jurisdiction: OCA (Diocese of Eastern Pennsylvania)
Posts: 6,861


"My god is greater."


« Reply #869 on: November 24, 2010, 11:52:06 PM »

For other uses, see Alphabet (disambiguation).

A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia.

Writing systems
History
Grapheme
List of writing systems
Types
Featural alphabet
Alphabet
Abjad
Abugida
Syllabary
Logography
Related topics
Pictogram
Ideogram
An alphabet is a standardized set of letters—basic written symbols or graphemes—each of which roughly represents a phoneme in a spoken language, either as it exists now or as it was in the past. There are other systems, such as logographies, in which each character represents a word, morpheme, or semantic unit, and syllabaries, in which each character represents a syllable. Alphabets are classified according to how they indicate vowels:

the same way as consonants, as in Greek (true alphabet)
diacritics or modification of consonants, as in Hindi (Devanāgarī: हिन्दी ) (abugida)
not at all, as in Phoenician (abjad)
The word "alphabet" came into Middle English from the Late Latin word Alphabetum, which in turn originated in the Ancient Greek Αλφάβητος Alphabetos, from alpha and beta, the first two letters of the Greek alphabet.[1] Alpha and beta in turn came from the first two letters of the Phoenician alphabet, and meant ox and house respectively. There are dozens of alphabets in use today, the most common being Latin,[2] deriving from the first true alphabet, Greek.[3][4] Most of them are composed of lines (linear writing); notable exceptions are Braille, fingerspelling (Sign language), and Morse code.

Hide History

Main article: History of the alphabet
Middle Eastern Scripts


A specimen of Proto-Sinaitic script, one of the earliest (if not the very first) phonemic scripts
The history of the alphabet started in ancient Egypt. By 2700 BCE Egyptian writing had a set of some 24 hieroglyphs which are called uniliterals,[5] to represent syllables that begin with a single consonant of their language, plus a vowel (or no vowel) to be supplied by the native speaker. These glyphs were used as pronunciation guides for logograms, to write grammatical inflections, and, later, to transcribe loan words and foreign names.[6]

However, although seemingly alphabetic in nature, the original Egyptian uniliterals were not a system and were never used by themselves to encode Egyptian speech.[6] In the Middle Bronze Age an apparently "alphabetic" system known as the Proto-Sinaitic script is thought by some to have been developed in the Sinai peninsula during the 19th century BCE, by Canaanite workers in the Egyptian turquoise mines.[7] Others suggest the alphabet was developed in central Egypt during the 15th century BCE for or by Semitic workers, but only one of these early writings has been deciphered and their exact nature remains open to interpretation.[8] Based on letter appearances and names, it is believed to be based on Egyptian hieroglyphs.[8] This script had no characters representing vowels. An alphabetic cuneiform script with 30 signs including 3 which indicate the following vowel was invented in Ugarit before the 15th century BCE. This script was not used after the destruction of Ugarit.[9]

The Proto-Sinaitic script eventually developed into the Phoenician alphabet, which is conventionally called "Proto-Canaanite" before ca. 1050 BCE.[10] The oldest text in Phoenician script is an inscription on the sarcophagus of King Ahiram. This script is the parent script of all western alphabets. By the tenth century two other forms can be distinguished namely Canaanite and Aramaic. The Aramaic gave rise to Hebrew.[11] The South Arabian alphabet, a sister script to the Phoenician alphabet, is the script from which the Ge'ez alphabet (an abugida) is descended. Note that the scripts mentioned above are not considered proper alphabets, as they all lack characters representing vowels. These vowelless alphabets are called abjads, currently exemplified in scripts including Arabic, Hebrew, and Syriac.The omission of vowels was not a satisfactory solution and some "weak" consonants were used to indicate the vowel quality of a syllable.(matres lectionis).These had dual function since they were also used as pure consonants.[12]

The Proto-Sinatic or Proto Canaanite script and the Ugaritic script were the first scripts with limited number of signs, in contrast to the other widely used writing systems at the time, Cuneiform, Egyptian hieroglyphs, and Linear B. The Phoenecian script was probably the first phonemic script[8][10] and it contained only about two dozen distinct letters, making it a script simple enough for common traders to learn. Another advantage of Phoenician was that it could be used to write down many different languages, since it recorded words phonemically.

The script was spread by the Phoenicians, across the Mediterranean.[10] In Greece, the script was modified to add the vowels, giving rise to the ancestor of all alphabets in the West. The indication of the vowels is the same way as the indication of the consonants, therefore it was the first true alphabet. The Greeks took letters which did not represent sounds that existed in Greek, and changed them to represent the vowels. The vowels are significant in the Greek language, and the syllabical Linear B script which was used by the Mycenaean Greeks from the 16th century BCE had 87 symbols including 5 vowels. In its early years, there were many variants of the Greek alphabet, a situation which caused many different alphabets to evolve from it.

European alphabets


Codex Zographensis in the Glagolitic alphabet from Medieval Bulgaria
The Cumae form of the Greek alphabet was carried over by Greek colonists from Euboea to the Italian peninsula, where it gave rise to a variety of alphabets used to inscribe the Italic languages. One of these became the Latin alphabet, which was spread across Europe as the Romans expanded their empire. Even after the fall of the Roman state, the alphabet survived in intellectual and religious works. It eventually became used for the descendant languages of Latin (the Romance languages) and then for most of the other languages of Europe.

Another notable script is Elder Futhark, which is believed to have evolved out of one of the Old Italic alphabets. Elder Futhark gave rise to a variety of alphabets known collectively as the Runic alphabets. The Runic alphabets were used for Germanic languages from CE 100 to the late Middle Ages. Its usage was mostly restricted to engravings on stone and jewelry, although inscriptions have also been found on bone and wood. These alphabets have since been replaced with the Latin alphabet, except for decorative usage for which the runes remained in use until the 20th century.

The Glagolitic alphabet was the initial script of the liturgical language Old Church Slavonic and became, together with the Greek uncial script, the basis of the Cyrillic alphabet. The Cyrillic alphabet is one of the most widely used modern alphabets, and is notable for its use in Slavic languages and also for other languages within the former Soviet Union. Variants include the Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian, and Russian alphabets. The Glagolitic alphabet is believed to have been created by Saints Cyril and Methodius, while the Cyrillic alphabet was invented by the Bulgarian scholar Clement of Ohrid, who was their disciple. They feature many letters that appear to have been borrowed from or influenced by the Greek alphabet and the Hebrew alphabet.

Asian alphabets

Beyond the logographic Chinese writing, many phonetic scripts are in existence in Asia. The Arabic alphabet, Hebrew alphabet, Syriac alphabet, and other abjads of the Middle East are developments of the Aramaic alphabet, but because these writing systems are largely consonant-based they are often not considered true alphabets.

Most alphabetic scripts of India and Eastern Asia are descended from the Brahmi script, which is often believed to be a descendent of Aramaic.


Zhuyin on a cell phone
In Korea, the Hangul alphabet was created by Sejong the Great[13] in 1443. Understanding of the phonetic alphabet of Mongolian Phagspa script aided the creation of a phonetic script suited to the spoken Korean language.[citation needed] Mongolian Phagspa script was in turn derived from the Brahmi script. Hangul is a unique alphabet in a variety of ways: it is a featural alphabet, where many of the letters are designed from a sound's place of articulation (P to look like widened mouth, L sound to look like tongue pulled in, etc.); its design was planned by the government of the time; and it places individual letters in syllable clusters with equal dimensions, in the same way as Chinese characters, to allow for mixed script writing[citation needed] (one syllable always takes up one type-space no matter how many letters get stacked into building that one sound-block).

On December 13, 1984, Sir Charles Bessinger discovered a series of written script symbols that had been etched into granite stones that had been iced over and preserved for an expected 3500 years. The Stones of Yai-Beng, as they are referred to, were found on the border of present day Nepal and China within 20 kilometers of Xi Tao. No pronunciation was ever brought forward and no derivable meaning either. On May 21, 1992, a troop of Uzbekistani bandits stole The Stones of Yai-Beng along with several other artifacts as they made their way to Germany for an exhibition.

Zhuyin (sometimes called Bopomofo) is a semi-syllabary used to phonetically transcribe Mandarin Chinese in the Republic of China. After the later establishment of the People's Republic of China and its adoption of Hanyu Pinyin, the use of Zhuyin today is limited, but it's still widely used in Taiwan where the Republic of China still governs. Zhuyin developed out of a form of Chinese shorthand based on Chinese characters in the early 1900s and has elements of both an alphabet and a syllabary. Like an alphabet the phonemes of syllable initials are represented by individual symbols, but like a syllabary the phonemes of the syllable finals are not; rather, each possible final (excluding the medial glide) is represented by its own symbol. For example, luan is represented as ㄌㄨㄢ (l-u-an), where the last symbol ㄢ represents the entire final -an. While Zhuyin is not used as a mainstream writing system, it is still often used in ways similar to a romanization system — that is, for aiding in pronunciation and as an input method for Chinese characters on computers and cell phones.

European alphabets, especially Latin and Cyrillic, have been adapted for many languages of Asia. Arabic is also widely used, sometimes as an abjad (as with Urdu and Persian) and sometimes as a complete alphabet (as with Kurdish and Uyghur).

↑ Jump Back A Section
Hide Types


Alphabets:  Armenian ,  Cyrillic ,  Georgian ,  Greek ,  Latin ,  Latin (and Arabic ),  Latin and Cyrillic 
Abjads:  Arabic ,  Hebrew 
Abugidas:  North Indic ,  South Indic ,  Ge'ez ,  Tāna   Canadian Syllabic and Latin 
Logographic+syllabic:  Pure logographic ,  Mixed logographic and syllabaries ,  Featural-alphabetic syllabary + limited logographic   Featural-alphabetic syllabary 
History of the alphabet
Proto-Sinaitic alphabet 19 c. BCE

Ugaritic 15 c. BCE
Proto-Canaanite 14 c. BCE
Phoenician 12 c. BCE
Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE
Samaritan 6 c. BCE
Aramaic 8 c. BCE
Kharoṣṭhī 6 c. BCE
Brāhmī & Indic 6 c. BCE
Brahmic abugidas
Devanagari 13 c. CE
Hebrew 3 c. BCE
Thaana 4 c. BCE
Pahlavi 3 c. BCE
Avestan 4 c. CE
Palmyrene 2 c. BCE
Syriac 2 c. BCE
Sogdian 2 c. BCE
Orkhon (Old Turkic) 6 c. CE
Old Hungarian ca. 650
Old Uyghur
Mongolian 1204 hh
Nabataean 2 c. BCE
Arabic 4 c. CE
Mandaic 2 c. CE
Greek 8 c. BCE
Etruscan 8 c. BCE
Latin 7 c. BCE
Runic 2 c. CE
Coptic 3 c. CE
Gothic 3 c. CE
Armenian 405
Georgian (disputed) ca. 430 CE
Glagolitic 862
Cyrillic ca. 940
Paleohispanic 7 c. BCE
Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE
Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE
Meroitic 3 c. BCE
Ogham 4 c. CE
Hangul 1443
Zhuyin (Bopomofo) 1913
Complete writing systems genealogy
This box: view • talk • edit
The term "alphabet" is used by linguists and paleographers in both a wide and a narrow sense. In the wider sense, an alphabet is a script that is segmental at the phoneme level  — that is, it has separate glyphs for individual sounds and not for larger units such as syllables or words. In the narrower sense, some scholars distinguish "true" alphabets from two other types of segmental script, abjads and abugidas. These three differ from each other in the way they treat vowels: abjads have letters for consonants and leave most vowels unexpressed; abugidas are also consonant-based, but indicate vowels with diacritics to or a systematic graphic modification of the consonants. In alphabets in the narrow sense, on the other hand, consonants and vowels are written as independent letters. The earliest known alphabet in the wider sense is the Wadi el-Hol script, believed to be an abjad, which through its successor Phoenician is the ancestor of modern alphabets, including Arabic, Greek, Latin (via the Old Italic alphabet), Cyrillic (via the Greek alphabet) and Hebrew (via Aramaic).

Examples of present-day abjads are the Arabic and Hebrew scripts; true alphabets include Latin, Cyrillic, and Korean hangul; and abugidas are used to write Tigrinya Amharic, Hindi, and Thai. The Canadian Aboriginal syllabics are also an abugida rather than a syllabary as their name would imply, since each glyph stands for a consonant which is modified by rotation to represent the following vowel. (In a true syllabary, each consonant-vowel combination would be represented by a separate glyph.)

All three types may be augmented with syllabic glyphs. Ugaritic, for example, is basically an abjad, but has syllabic letters for /ʔa, ʔi, ʔu/. (These are the only time vowels are indicated.) Cyrillic is basically a true alphabet, but has syllabic letters for /ja, je, ju/ (я, е, ю); Coptic has a letter for /ti/. Devanagari is typically an abugida augmented with dedicated letters for initial vowels, though some traditions use अ as a zero consonant as the graphic base for such vowels.

The boundaries between the three types of segmental scripts are not always clear-cut. For example, Sorani Kurdish is written in the Arabic script, which is normally an abjad. However, in Kurdish, writing the vowels is mandatory, and full letters are used, so the script is a true alphabet. Other languages may use a Semitic abjad with mandatory vowel diacritics, effectively making them abugidas. On the other hand, the Phagspa script of the Mongol Empire was based closely on the Tibetan abugida, but all vowel marks were written after the preceding consonant rather than as diacritic marks. Although short a was not written, as in the Indic abugidas, one could argue that the linear arrangement made this a true alphabet. Conversely, the vowel marks of the Tigrinya abugida and the Amharic abugida (ironically, the original source of the term "abugida") have been so completely assimilated into their consonants that the modifications are no longer systematic and have to be learned as a syllabary rather than as a segmental script. Even more extreme, the Pahlavi abjad eventually became logographic. (See below.)

Thus the primary classification of alphabets reflects how they treat vowels. For tonal languages, further classification can be based on their treatment of tone, though names do not yet exist to distinguish the various types. Some alphabets disregard tone entirely, especially when it does not carry a heavy functional load, as in Somali and many other languages of Africa and the Americas. Such scripts are to tone what abjads are to vowels. Most commonly, tones are indicated with diacritics, the way vowels are treated in abugidas. This is the case for Vietnamese (a true alphabet) and Thai (an abugida). In Thai, tone is determined primarily by the choice of consonant, with diacritics for disambiguation. In the Pollard script, an abugida, vowels are indicated by diacritics, but the placement of the diacritic relative to the consonant is modified to indicate the tone. More rarely, a script may have separate letters for tones, as is the case for Hmong and Zhuang. For most of these scripts, regardless of whether letters or diacritics are used, the most common tone is not marked, just as the most common vowel is not marked in Indic abugidas; in Zhuyin not only is one of the tones unmarked, but there is a diacritic to indicate lack of tone, like the virama of Indic.

The number of letters in an alphabet can be quite small. The Book Pahlavi script, an abjad, had only twelve letters at one point, and may have had even fewer later on. Today the Rotokas alphabet has only twelve letters. (The Hawaiian alphabet is sometimes claimed to be as small, but it actually consists of 18 letters, including the ʻokina and five long vowels.) While Rotokas has a small alphabet because it has few phonemes to represent (just eleven), Book Pahlavi was small because many letters had been conflated — that is, the graphic distinctions had been lost over time, and diacritics were not developed to compensate for this as they were in Arabic, another script that lost many of its distinct letter shapes. For example, a comma-shaped letter represented g, d, y, k, or j. However, such apparent simplifications can perversely make a script more complicated. In later Pahlavi papyri, up to half of the remaining graphic distinctions of these twelve letters were lost, and the script could no longer be read as a sequence of letters at all, but instead each word had to be learned as a whole — that is, they had become logograms as in Egyptian Demotic.

The largest segmental script is probably an abugida, Devanagari. When written in Devanagari, Vedic Sanskrit has an alphabet of 53 letters, including the visarga mark for final aspiration and special letters for kš and jñ, though one of the letters is theoretical and not actually used. The Hindi alphabet must represent both Sanskrit and modern vocabulary, and so has been expanded to 58 with the khutma letters (letters with a dot added) to represent sounds from Persian and English.

The largest known abjad is Sindhi, with 51 letters. The largest alphabets in the narrow sense include Kabardian and Abkhaz (for Cyrillic), with 58 and 56 letters, respectively, and Slovak (for the Latin alphabet), with 46. However, these scripts either count di- and tri-graphs as separate letters, as Spanish did with ch and ll until recently, or uses diacritics like Slovak č. The largest true alphabet where each letter is graphically independent is probably Georgian, with 41 letters.

Syllabaries typically contain 50 to 400 glyphs (though the Múra-Pirahã language of Brazil would require only 24 if it did not denote tone, and Rotokas would require only 30), and the glyphs of logographic systems typically number from the many hundreds into the thousands. Thus a simple count of the number of distinct symbols is an important clue to the nature of an unknown script.

↑ Jump Back A Section
Hide Alphabetic order

It is not always clear what constitutes a distinct alphabet. French uses the same basic alphabet as English, but many of the letters can carry additional marks, such as é, à, and ô. In French, these combinations are not considered to be additional letters. However, in Icelandic, the accented letters such as á, í, and ö are considered to be distinct letters of the alphabet. In Spanish, ñ is considered a separate letter, but accented vowels such as á and é are not. The ll and ch are also considered single letters, but in 1994 the Real Academia Española changed collating order so that ll is between lk and lm in the dictionary and ch is between cg and ci.[14]

In German, words starting with sch- (constituting the German phoneme /ʃ/) would be intercalated between words with initial sca- and sci- (all incidentally loanwords) instead of this graphic cluster appearing after the letter s, as though it were a single letter – a lexicographical policy which would be de rigueur in a dictionary of Albanian, i.e. dh-, gj-, ll-, rr-, th-, xh- and zh- (all representing phonemes and considered separate single letters) would follow the letters d, g, l, n, r, t, x and z respectively. Nor is, in a dictionary of English, the lexical section with initial th- reserved a place after the letter t, but is inserted between te- and ti-. German words with umlaut would further be alphabetized as if there were no umlaut at all – contrary to Turkish which allegedly adopted the German graphemes ö and ü, and where a word like tüfek, "gun", would come after tuz, "salt", in the dictionary.

The Danish and Norwegian alphabets end with æ – ø – å, whereas the Swedish and the Finnish ones conventionally put å – ä – ö at the end.

Some adaptations of the Latin alphabet are augmented with ligatures, such as æ in Old English and Icelandic and Ȣ in Algonquian; by borrowings from other alphabets, such as the thorn þ in Old English and Icelandic, which came from the Futhark runes; and by modifying existing letters, such as the eth ð of Old English and Icelandic, which is a modified d. Other alphabets only use a subset of the Latin alphabet, such as Hawaiian, and Italian, which uses the letters j, k, x, y and w only in foreign words.

It is unknown whether the earliest alphabets had a defined sequence. Some alphabets today, such as the Hanuno'o script, are learned one letter at a time, in no particular order, and are not used for collation where a definite order is required. However, a dozen Ugaritic tablets from the fourteenth century BCE preserve the alphabet in two sequences. One, the ABCDE order later used in Phoenician, has continued with minor changes in Hebrew, Greek, Armenian, Gothic, Cyrillic, and Latin; the other, HMĦLQ, was used in southern Arabia and is preserved today in Ethiopic.[15] Both orders have therefore been stable for at least 3000 years.

The historical order was abandoned in Runic and Arabic, although Arabic retains the traditional "abjadi order" for numbering.

The Brahmic family of alphabets used in India use a unique order based on phonology: The letters are arranged according to how and where they are produced in the mouth. This organization is used in Southeast Asia, Tibet, Korean hangul, and even Japanese kana, which is not an alphabet.

The Phoenician letter names, in which each letter is associated with a word that begins with that sound, continue to be used in Samaritan, Aramaic, Syriac, Hebrew, and Greek. However, they were abandoned in Arabic, Cyrillic and Latin.

↑ Jump Back A Section
Hide Orthography and spelling

Main articles: Orthography and Spelling
Each language may establish rules that govern the association between letters and phonemes, but, depending on the language, these rules may or may not be consistently followed. In a perfectly phonological alphabet, the phonemes and letters would correspond perfectly in two directions: a writer could predict the spelling of a word given its pronunciation, and a speaker could predict the pronunciation of a word given its spelling.

However, languages often evolve independently of their writing systems, and writing systems have been borrowed for languages they were not designed for, so the degree to which letters of an alphabet correspond to phonemes of a language varies greatly from one language to another and even within a single language.

Languages may fail to achieve a one-to-one correspondence between letters and sounds in any of several ways:

A language may represent a given phoneme with a combination of letters rather than just a single letter. Two-letter combinations are called digraphs and three-letter groups are called trigraphs. German uses the tesseragraphs (four letters) "tsch" for the phoneme [tʃ] and "dsch" for [dʒ], although the latter is rare. Kabardian also uses a tesseragraph for one of its phonemes.
A language may represent the same phoneme with two different letters or combinations of letters. An example is modern Greek which may write the phoneme in six different ways: "ι", "η", "υ", "ει", "οι" and "υι" (although the last is very rare).
A language may spell some words with unpronounced letters that exist for historical or other reasons. For example, the spelling of the Thai word for "beer" [เบียร์] retains a letter for the final consonant 'r' present in the English word it was borrowed from, but silences it. Otherwise, according to Thai pronunciation rules, the word might be pronounced more like "bean."
Pronunciation of individual words may change according to the presence of surrounding words in a sentence (sandhi).
Different dialects of a language may use different phonemes for the same word.
A language may use different sets of symbols or different rules for distinct sets of vocabulary items, such as the Japanese hiragana and katakana syllabaries, or the various rules in English for spelling words from Latin and Greek, or the original Germanic vocabulary.
National languages generally elect to address the problem of dialects by simply associating the alphabet with the national standard. However, with an international language with wide variations in its dialects, such as English, it would be impossible to represent the language in all its variations with a single phonetic alphabet.

Some national languages like Finnish, Turkish and Bulgarian have a very regular spelling system with a nearly one-to-one correspondence between letters and phonemes. Strictly speaking, there is no word in the Finnish, Turkish and Bulgarian languages corresponding to the verb "to spell" (meaning to split a word into its letters), the closest match being a verb meaning to split a word into its syllables. Similarly, the Italian verb corresponding to 'spell', compitare, is unknown to many Italians because the act of spelling itself is almost never needed: each phoneme of Standard Italian is represented in only one way. However, pronunciation cannot always be predicted from spelling in cases of irregular syllabic stress. In standard Spanish, it is possible to tell the pronunciation of a word from its spelling, but not vice versa; this is because certain phonemes can be represented in more than one way, but a given letter is consistently pronounced. French, with its silent letters and its heavy use of nasal vowels and elision, may seem to lack much correspondence between spelling and pronunciation, but its rules on pronunciation are actually consistent and predictable with a fair degree of accuracy.

At the other extreme, are languages such as English, where the spelling of many words simply has to be memorized as they do not correspond to sounds in a consistent way. For English, this is partly because the Great Vowel Shift occurred after the orthography was established, and because English has acquired a large number of loanwords at different times, retaining their original spelling at varying levels. Even English has general, albeit complex, rules that predict pronunciation from spelling, and these rules are successful most of the time; rules to predict spelling from the pronunciation have a higher failure rate.

Sometimes, countries have the written language undergo a spelling reform to realign the writing with the contemporary spoken language. These can range from simple spelling changes and word forms to switching the entire writing system itself, as when Turkey switched from the Arabic alphabet to the Roman alphabet.

The sounds of speech of all languages of the world can be written by a rather small universal phonetic alphabet. A standard for this is the International Phonetic Alphabet.

↑ Jump Back A Section
Hide See also

ABC-DEF-GHI
Abecedarium
Acrophony
Akshara
Alphabet Effect
Alphabet song
Alphabetical order
Alphabetize
Butterfly Alphabet
Character encoding
Constructed script
English alphabet
ICAO spelling alphabet
Lipogram
List of alphabets
Pangram
Transliteration
Unicode
↑ Jump Back A Section
Hide References

^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online – Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary
^ Haarmann 2004, p. 96
^ Coulmas, Florian (1996). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-21481-X.
^ Millard 1986, p. 396
^ "The Development of the Western Alphabet". h2g2. BBC. 2004-04-08. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
^ a b Daniels and Bright (1996), pp. 74–75
^ "Goldwasser, O. "How the Alphabet Was Born from Hieroglyphs", Biblical Archaeology Review 36, No. 2, (March/April 2010): 40-53.".
^ a b c Coulmas (1989), p. 140-141
^ Ugaritic Writing online
^ a b c Daniels and Bright (1996), pp 92-96
^ "Coulmas"(1989),p.142
^ "Coulmas"(1989) p.147
^ "上親制諺文二十八字…是謂訓民正音(His majesty created 28 characters himself... It is Hunminjeongeum (original name for Hangul)", 《세종실록 (The Annals of the Choson Dynasty : Sejong)》 25년 12월.
^ Real Academia Española. "Spanish Pronto!: Spanish Alphabet." Spanish Pronto! 22 April 2007. January 2009 Spanish Pronto: Spanish < > English Medical Translators.
^ Millard, A.R. "The Infancy of the Alphabet", World Archaeology 17, No. 3, Early Writing Systems (February 1986): 390–398. page 395.
↑ Jump Back A Section
Show Bibliography

Show External links

How would this relate to the unification of Hinduism and Christianity?

Yes.
Logged

"A riddle or the cricket's cry
Is to doubt a fit reply." - William Blake

Quote from: Byron
Just ignore iconotools delusions. He is the biggest multiculturalist globalist there is due to his unfortunate background.
Justin Kissel
Formerly Asteriktos
Protospatharios
****************
Offline Offline

Posts: 29,383



« Reply #870 on: November 25, 2010, 12:15:59 AM »

"↑ Jump Back A Section"

The most informative part of that copy pasta. Thank you, delicious.
Logged

"Change is the process of becoming more like who we are."
dattaswami
High Elder
******
Offline Offline

Posts: 837



« Reply #871 on: November 25, 2010, 12:20:58 AM »

"↑ Jump Back A Section"

The most informative part of that copy pasta. Thank you, delicious.
Any body can post anything just like that. But it is not divine knowledge. Divine knowledge is very very difficult to get, since GOd in human form has to speak. The opportunity to meet the contemproary human incarnation is very very rare......He is the correct place of God and His knowledge is the divine knowledge....
Logged
Iconodule
Uranopolitan
Taxiarches
**********
Offline Offline

Faith: Orthodox Christian
Jurisdiction: OCA (Diocese of Eastern Pennsylvania)
Posts: 6,861


"My god is greater."


« Reply #872 on: November 25, 2010, 12:23:16 AM »

"↑ Jump Back A Section"

The most informative part of that copy pasta. Thank you, delicious.
Any body can post anything just like that. But it is not divine knowledge. Divine knowledge is very very difficult to get, since GOd in human form has to speak. The opportunity to meet the contemproary human incarnation is very very rare......He is the correct place of God and His knowledge is the divine knowledge....

Incorrect.
Logged

"A riddle or the cricket's cry
Is to doubt a fit reply." - William Blake

Quote from: Byron
Just ignore iconotools delusions. He is the biggest multiculturalist globalist there is due to his unfortunate background.
biro
Excelsior
Site Supporter
Toumarches
*****
Offline Offline

Faith: Orthodox Christian
Jurisdiction: Greek Orthodox Church
Posts: 12,747


Και κλήρονομον δείξον με, ζωής της αιωνίου

fleem
WWW
« Reply #873 on: November 25, 2010, 12:39:16 AM »



Just like this skyline, this thread has no end.
Logged

Charlie Rose: If you could change one thing about the world, what would it be?

Fran Lebowitz: Everything. There is not one thing with which I am satisfied.

http://spcasuncoast.org/
stanley123
Protokentarchos
*********
Offline Offline

Faith: Catholic
Jurisdiction: Roman Catholic
Posts: 3,809


« Reply #874 on: November 25, 2010, 12:52:09 AM »

Divine knowledge is very very difficult to get, since GOd in human form has to speak. The opportunity to meet the contemproary human incarnation is very very rare......He is the correct place of God and His knowledge is the divine knowledge....
Why does God allow innocent children and others to suffer terrible pain and suffering? Why does not God wipe out this evil inflicted on innocent people in the world today?
Logged
dattaswami
High Elder
******
Offline Offline

Posts: 837



« Reply #875 on: November 25, 2010, 01:07:52 AM »


Why does God allow innocent children and others to suffer terrible pain and suffering? Why does not God wipe out this evil inflicted on innocent people in the world today?

Very good question.

The Lord is the writer of the constitution and He knows whom to punish. Some times you see punishment of innocent person. You think that the injustice is ruling. In the kingdom of God only the justice is the ruler by the grace of God. When the innocent is punished, the punishment was of some bad deed done by him previously and the date of the punishment coincided with the present incident accidentally.


In the creation every incident is the result of the three dimensional network of action, time, fruit etc. You do not know the incidents of the previous birth. The person who tortured somebody is now born as the sufferer. You see this birth only and pity that soul. In the creation of God no injustice will take place and nobody will escape. Hence, the omniscient God keeps silent. The soul with limited knowledge talks all sorts of things.



Again you are committing the mistake to think that the punished person is innocent. Either you or present ruler cannot judge the innocence. Not only in the previous birth, even in this birth, he committed several sins, which are not only known to you or even to himself. Therefore, God gives the real judgment. The judge may give a wrong judgment. He gave like that because God guided his enquiry. You criticize the judge. The judgment given by him by mistake is correct because it is given by God. Anybody in this world who harms you is just instrumental. Without the enquiry and decision of God nothing will happen in this world. The God is punishing not with revenge but to transform the soul. This entire system of Universe is created and run by God only.
Logged
theistgal
Byzantine (Ruthenian) Catholic gadfly
Site Supporter
Archon
*****
Offline Offline

Faith: Follower of Jesus Christ
Jurisdiction: Byzantine Catholic
Posts: 2,082


don't even go there!


« Reply #876 on: November 25, 2010, 01:21:50 AM »

One reason (among many) I don't believe you're God: you have absolutely NO sense of humor!!!
Logged

"Sometimes, you just gotta say, 'OK, I still have nine live, two-headed animals' and move on.'' (owner of Coney Island freak show, upon learning he'd been outbid on a 5-legged puppy)
biro
Excelsior
Site Supporter
Toumarches
*****
Offline Offline

Faith: Orthodox Christian
Jurisdiction: Greek Orthodox Church
Posts: 12,747


Και κλήρονομον δείξον με, ζωής της αιωνίου

fleem
WWW
« Reply #877 on: November 25, 2010, 01:24:44 AM »

I'm sorry, but whatever 'gods' you've got in Hinduism, they seem pretty cold-blooded. Where is repentance and forgiveness?  Huh
Logged

Charlie Rose: If you could change one thing about the world, what would it be?

Fran Lebowitz: Everything. There is not one thing with which I am satisfied.

http://spcasuncoast.org/
dattaswami
High Elder
******
Offline Offline

Posts: 837



« Reply #878 on: November 25, 2010, 02:03:42 AM »

I'm sorry, but whatever 'gods' you've got in Hinduism, they seem pretty cold-blooded. Where is repentance and forgiveness?  Huh

Real & permanent transformation of mind can only cancel sins

The sin, which is the source of all sufferings, cannot be cancelled through any extent of devotion and any extent of dearness and nearness to God. No way is competent to cancel the sin except one path. Such only one path is real and permanent transformation of the mind. Such transformation will avoid the doing of sin in future. Since the punishment given for the sin done in the past also aims at this transformation only, there is no meaning of punishing the soul further for the past sins after the transformation. Hence, the permanent and real transformation of the soul cancels all the past sins and the future possibility of doing any sin more. There is no other way than this because such unique way is the will of God.

If God cancels all your past sins, it means that you are really and permanently transformed and that you will never do sin in the future. Such permanent and real transformation of the soul can be achieved only by getting the true knowledge, which is the starting step of the correct treatment. After getting the true knowledge, you will try to travel in the right path and now your effort gains importance. Gradually, you will succeed in getting the real and permanent transformation through the right knowledge associated with your subsequent effort to implement the right knowledge in practice. Both right knowledge and your effort are necessary to achieve the goal.
Logged
biro
Excelsior
Site Supporter
Toumarches
*****
Offline Offline

Faith: Orthodox Christian
Jurisdiction: Greek Orthodox Church
Posts: 12,747


Και κλήρονομον δείξον με, ζωής της αιωνίου

fleem
WWW
« Reply #879 on: November 25, 2010, 02:09:09 AM »

Quote from: dattaswami
If God cancels all your past sins, it means that you are really and permanently transformed and that you will never do sin in the future.

You didn't listen to anything you heard in church? How sad.

 Huh

More cutting and pasting, more of the same doctrine which has nothing to do with what we were talking about. He just hears one word and goes off on another tangent.

 Undecided

It is a waste.


Logged

Charlie Rose: If you could change one thing about the world, what would it be?

Fran Lebowitz: Everything. There is not one thing with which I am satisfied.

http://spcasuncoast.org/
dattaswami
High Elder
******
Offline Offline

Posts: 837



« Reply #880 on: November 25, 2010, 02:26:06 AM »

I'm sorry, but whatever 'gods' you've got in Hinduism, they seem pretty cold-blooded. Where is repentance and forgiveness?  Huh

Krishna told that the true knowledge giving the correct direction followed by the effort of soul in implementation will burn all the sins of past, present and future (Jnanaagnih…, Abhyasenatu…). Jesus propagated this concept telling that if you confess and do not repeat the sins through surrender to God, all the sins will be excused. The priests of the church crucified Him, since the propagation of such true knowledge will affect their interests. The sinners come and donate to get their sins cancelled. The priests play important role in this process and get highest respect from the public.

The propagation of this truth will affect their business and respectful positions in the society. The priests of all the religions in the world are doing huge business based on this false concept only. In fact, these priests can earn more and can get more respect if they are based on the truth and propagate the true knowledge.

 When the truth is propagated, the souls will get real benefit. The priests will be rewarded more and hence, should not object the propagation of the true spiritual knowledge under the false impression that their livelihood gets spoiled by the true knowledge.
Logged
dattaswami
High Elder
******
Offline Offline

Posts: 837



« Reply #881 on: November 25, 2010, 02:29:27 AM »

Quote from: dattaswami
If God cancels all your past sins, it means that you are really and permanently transformed and that you will never do sin in the future.

You didn't listen to anything you heard in church? How sad.

 Huh

More cutting and pasting, more of the same doctrine which has nothing to do with what we were talking about. He just hears one word and goes off on another tangent.

 Undecided

It is a waste.




Your reply shows that you have no interest in learning divine knowlege!!

Any body in this world suffers due to his or her own previous deeds only. God is not responsible for that. God gives the commandments for not doing sins. If one obeys it then there is no suffering for any body. Suppose one has done sins and suffering now. If he repent and do not repeat the sins practically again, then all his past sins will be cancelled by God. For this to happen he should never ever repeat the sins again.

All the punishments are only for reformation of the soul and not for revenge. The hell is created by God not with vengeance against sinners but due to kindness to reform the souls. God is always kind to reform the souls, which are His children since the souls are created by Him.

The father will never have even a trace of vengeance towards his issues. Jesus always addressed God as father and He propagated this concept by saying that all your sins will be excused by God if you are reformed. Practical knowledge, the practical realization, which is the reformation, will cancel all your previous bad deeds or sins as told in Gita (Jnanaagnih….). Except this one way, there is no other way to cancel the sins and escape from all the present problems in the world and future torture in the hell.
Logged
dattaswami
High Elder
******
Offline Offline

Posts: 837



« Reply #882 on: November 25, 2010, 02:32:16 AM »



It is a waste.




Divine knowledge is a waste for people like you, how have no patience in analysing the divine knowledge.

The day you have stopped repeating the sin, you are excused by God for the past sin. This is the only way to stop the punishment of sin, which is in the form of problems of life. If you have stopped all the sins, your life will be the happiest and for this you need not pray even God. Prayer to God will not cancel even the trace of the sin.
Logged
dattaswami
High Elder
******
Offline Offline

Posts: 837



« Reply #883 on: November 25, 2010, 02:37:39 AM »

One reason (among many) I don't believe you're God: you have absolutely NO sense of humor!!!

You want sense of humour not divine knowledge!!!

Link the fruits to your own actions. Some times the actions fail and unexpected negative results appear.  People think that a good deed has given a bad result and bad deed has given good result.  Based on this, people doubt the existence of the divine system of cycle of deeds. 

Every action has its corresponding result after some time.  The time gap may be even after this life.  Some actions give results at once.  If you put finger in the fire, it will burn immediately.  But generally the actions are enquired by the divine system under the supervision of the God and the result of the action may be after the some time in this life or may be even after this life.  The time gap is a decision of the judge and not yourself.  You might have done some good deed and its result may be received after ten days on a particular day at 10.30 am. 

You might have done a bad deed on that day at 10.29 am and its results will be received at a particular time after some days.  Now the observers think that the good result at 10.30am is the effect of the bad deed done at the 10.29 am. The observers criticize the divine system of God. 

This cycle of deeds is a very complicated multidimensional network system with so many parameters of time and place correlated with each other  (Gahanaa Karmano Gathih….Gita).  The superimpositions and coincidence of some actions and some other fruits mislead you to understand the intricate system.  Except God no body can analyze this system of network.  The deep analysis of all the parameters is impossible for a human brain.  Therefore, never criticize the administration of God and unnecessarily earn the sin. 
Logged
dattaswami
High Elder
******
Offline Offline

Posts: 837



« Reply #884 on: November 25, 2010, 02:50:48 AM »




It is a waste.




You are all claim that you are great devotees of Jesus, what is the use! None of you have no interest in divine knowledge and when presented it, no body is following it....!!!!

You have to improve your love on God. Reduce blind attraction to world and family, that way you will develop love on His divine knowledge.....
Logged
chrevbel
Site Supporter
High Elder
*****
Offline Offline

Faith: Orthodox Christian
Jurisdiction: Antiochian
Posts: 708



« Reply #885 on: November 25, 2010, 02:56:30 AM »

These stories (Puranas) are part of the spiritual knowledge...
Are these Puranas what the Puritans believe?  Is that where the name comes from?
Logged
dattaswami
High Elder
******
Offline Offline

Posts: 837



« Reply #886 on: November 25, 2010, 03:06:39 AM »

These stories (Puranas) are part of the spiritual knowledge...
Are these Puranas what the Puritans believe?  Is that where the name comes from?

Puranas means the life account of devotees. If you read Puranas like Mahabharata, Ramayana etc the real life of several devotees are mentioned. How they succeeded in the test of God you will come to know. These life history will be a lesson to you in your spiritual aspiration.

 Among these Puranas Ramayana, Bharatha and Bhagavatha are very significant.  They deal with the then existing human incarnations available for those devotees.
Logged
chrevbel
Site Supporter
High Elder
*****
Offline Offline

Faith: Orthodox Christian
Jurisdiction: Antiochian
Posts: 708



« Reply #887 on: November 25, 2010, 03:12:01 AM »

We do indeed have much to learn.  You never answered about the ducks, by the way...
Logged
Agia Marina
Site Supporter
Elder
*****
Offline Offline

Faith: Eastern Orthodox
Jurisdiction: OCA, Bulgarian Diocese
Posts: 409


St. Marina of Antioch


WWW
« Reply #888 on: November 25, 2010, 03:36:59 AM »

Quote from: dattaswami
If God cancels all your past sins, it means that you are really and permanently transformed and that you will never do sin in the future.

You didn't listen to anything you heard in church? How sad.

 Huh

More cutting and pasting, more of the same doctrine which has nothing to do with what we were talking about. He just hears one word and goes off on another tangent.

 Undecided

It is a waste.




Your reply shows that you have no interest in learning divine knowlege!
Bingo!
Logged

“When I have a little money I buy books; and if any is left, I buy food and clothes.” - Erasmus

"God became man so that man might become a god." ~St. Athanasius the Great

Poster formerly known as EVOO.
Agia Marina
Site Supporter
Elder
*****
Offline Offline

Faith: Eastern Orthodox
Jurisdiction: OCA, Bulgarian Diocese
Posts: 409


St. Marina of Antioch


WWW
« Reply #889 on: November 25, 2010, 03:38:46 AM »



It is a waste.




Divine knowledge is a waste for people like you, how have no patience in analysing the divine knowledge.
You're right--we have no interest in learning about your "divine knowledge".
Logged

“When I have a little money I buy books; and if any is left, I buy food and clothes.” - Erasmus

"God became man so that man might become a god." ~St. Athanasius the Great

Poster formerly known as EVOO.
mike
Stratopedarches
**************
Offline Offline

Posts: 21,467


WWW
« Reply #890 on: November 25, 2010, 03:47:28 AM »

For other uses, see Alphabet (disambiguation).

A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia.

Writing systems
History
Grapheme
List of writing systems
Types
Featural alphabet
Alphabet
Abjad
Abugida
Syllabary
Logography
Related topics
Pictogram
Ideogram


Could you post a link to the website you copied it from?
Logged

Byzantinism
no longer posting here
dattaswami
High Elder
******
Offline Offline

Posts: 837



« Reply #891 on: November 25, 2010, 04:12:56 AM »

We do indeed have much to learn.  You never answered about the ducks, by the way...

I have used a parable. God comes with divine knowledge to this world. He preaches through Son of GOD who is just look like any other human being.
Logged
dattaswami
High Elder
******
Offline Offline

Posts: 837



« Reply #892 on: November 25, 2010, 04:14:07 AM »

Quote from: Agia Marina link=topic=30787You're right--we have no interest in learning about your "divine knowledge".
[/quote






Increase your value to God then you will appreciate His divine knowledge.

Value of God is known Only by the spiritual knowledge

The value of Nivrutti is infinite – none can pay its actual value.
Its value is decided as total – sacrifice and total surrender of self.
It may be just one rupee for – beggar and crore for crore owner,
Little flour for Saktuprastha was – sufficient to purchase Nivrutti,
Even crores of wealth of Dharma Raja – could not purchase it since
Some thing remained after charity, - this is the justified value of God.
Since a beggar purchased Nivrutti – just by one rupee, a crore lord
Should not think that he can – also purchase it by one rupee only.
The real value is infinite and – this is only the maximum possible value.
You are sacrificing price for – priceless items in the world by ignorance.

You have overestimated value – of items, which have no value at all!
When God comes to you to sell – Himself for the same price since
You have that much only, for – the possible maximum available
Value in your case, even though – He has infinite value, you do not
Pay even the price you have paid – for the valueless items in world.
A chain of diamonds is waste for – a monkey and its value for it is
One rupee by which some white – fruits similar to diamonds can be
Purchased, when the monkey couldn’t – eat diamonds, it is thrown,
Its value is not even one rupee, - monkey does not know real value,
Since it is ignorant of value of – diamonds, value of God is known
Only by the spiritual knowledge, - Jnana yoga is very important
Through out spiritual progress, - hence Shankara stressed on it.
A village lady got the same chain – of diamonds, its value for her
Is only ten rupees, since she purchased – a similar chain of
White beads, she cannot discriminate – diamonds and white beads.
When the chain is lost – she does not bother about it since just
Ten rupees are lost for her, - again ignorance is the basis here.

A diamond merchant got it, - he knows its real value and hence
Dances with bliss and hides it – in a locker carefully and if it is
Lost, he will cry for it throughout – his life and is severely shocked.
The reason here is the knowledge – of the real value of diamonds.


Atheist is monkey who throws God – finding no trace of use from Him.
Village lady is a devotee in Pravrutti, - God is just an instrument to
Achieve worldly happiness, if God is – lost, just an instrument is lost,
You have alternative worldly means - to achieve worldly happiness.
The merchant is a devotee of – Nivrutti giving highest value to God.
There are some special people, - one says that he does not need the diamonds at all.
He feels that the diamond seller is – running after him to give chain freely
And since he is not in need, he is – refusing it! If he feels that unless
The seller sells the chain; he will be – punished by the king and so far
None turned to purchase it, fearing – for punishment he is requesting us
To take chain freely, then some body – may also demand some money
Along with chain so that the seller – is saved from punishment of king.
« Last Edit: November 25, 2010, 04:33:19 AM by dattaswami » Logged
Agia Marina
Site Supporter
Elder
*****
Offline Offline

Faith: Eastern Orthodox
Jurisdiction: OCA, Bulgarian Diocese
Posts: 409


St. Marina of Antioch


WWW
« Reply #893 on: November 25, 2010, 04:42:48 AM »

^"God" doesn't know how to use HTML tags.  Huh
Logged

“When I have a little money I buy books; and if any is left, I buy food and clothes.” - Erasmus

"God became man so that man might become a god." ~St. Athanasius the Great

Poster formerly known as EVOO.
dattaswami
High Elder
******
Offline Offline

Posts: 837



« Reply #894 on: November 25, 2010, 05:01:45 AM »

^"God" doesn't know how to use HTML tags.  Huh

You have to care for God's knowledge not HTML tags
Logged
dattaswami
High Elder
******
Offline Offline

Posts: 837



« Reply #895 on: November 25, 2010, 05:03:44 AM »

^"God" doesn't know how to use HTML tags.  Huh

You have to increase value on God not on 'HTML tags'
The value of God can be understood – from the bliss you get by
Simply remembering Him, - what will be bliss of His presence?
What will be bliss when you – become God in human incarnation?
Then what is His real value? – When you get bliss directly by
Remembering Him, why should you – ask for worldly things to get
Bliss from them? In fact, they are – sources of worry and tension only.


A mirage never contains water in it – water is illusion in it, similarly
All worldly bonds appear blissful – through illusion and really they are
Forms of worry only, - Jesus praised a beggar surrendering a rupee (a cent)In the church announcing – that God is pleased with that sacrifice.

A rich man came for salvation to Him, - Jesus told him to sacrifice all
The wealth possessed by him – and then only come for salvation.
Both these indicate that God’s price – is total sacrifice, total surrender,
Which is not the actual price, - but is the maximum possible price.
Omniscient God knows even tiny – vibration of every thought of you!


« Last Edit: November 25, 2010, 05:10:33 AM by dattaswami » Logged
mike
Stratopedarches
**************
Offline Offline

Posts: 21,467


WWW
« Reply #896 on: November 25, 2010, 05:11:28 AM »

Were there rupees in post-Hellenic Roman Empire?
Logged

Byzantinism
no longer posting here
dattaswami
High Elder
******
Offline Offline

Posts: 837



« Reply #897 on: November 25, 2010, 05:40:19 AM »

Were there rupees in post-Hellenic Roman Empire?
You can replace rupees with dinar...
Logged
Justin Kissel
Formerly Asteriktos
Protospatharios
****************
Offline Offline

Posts: 29,383



« Reply #898 on: November 25, 2010, 05:44:25 AM »

Rupees?

Logged

"Change is the process of becoming more like who we are."
Justin Kissel
Formerly Asteriktos
Protospatharios
****************
Offline Offline

Posts: 29,383



« Reply #899 on: November 25, 2010, 05:45:11 AM »

^"God" doesn't know how to use HTML tags.  Huh

God works in mysterious ways. Sometimes he pretends like he is making a mistake to test your faith Wink
Logged

"Change is the process of becoming more like who we are."
Tags: please ignore this thread Blasphemy cheval mort 
Pages: « 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 »   Go Up
  Print  
 
Jump to:  

Powered by MySQL Powered by PHP Powered by SMF 1.1.18 | SMF © 2013, Simple Machines Valid XHTML 1.0! Valid CSS!
Page created in 0.261 seconds with 72 queries.