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Author Topic: Blasphemous and Heretical Musings of a Self-Styled Deity Claiming Unity of Belief Between Christianity and Hinduism  (Read 107397 times) Average Rating: 0
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« Reply #720 on: November 20, 2010, 03:25:10 AM »

So, Mother Teresa was interfering with "divine administration" even though she was God in human form ... in other words, there is more than one God.  How does Islam reconcile with your belief in multiple Gods?

Mother Teresa helped the poor and preached divine knowledge to them.

So you deny that Mother Teresa was God in human form?

She was selected by God to do social service in the name of God. She did it perfectly and she is a good example.

Did another God in human form approach Mother Teresa and made her an offer that she couldn't refuse?

A person who is involved in divine knoweldge propagation is far far superior that even Mother Teresa.

Jesus disciples are far far superior in pleasing God than even Mother Theresa.

What happened after the Disciples?  Did their successors stop pleasing God?  Which God?

Pleasing God is the main of human life. God is pleased when one is involved in His service. The most important service is propagation of divine knowledge preached by the human incarnation.

Are you in total denial?

Social service is certainly good if you do social service in the name of God associated with imparting divine knoweldge to those people.

Like Satan imparted knowledge to Eve ... something along those lines?

Propagation divine knoweldge will improve devotion in people and if devotion in people has increased and one started loving and serving GOd the soul will get transformed due to the divine knowledge and will not repeat the sins again and this pleases God.

Thus ultimately it is the divine knowledge which transforms a person not to do sins and repent and get God's blessing and continue his love on God by practically participating in HIs mission.

By what means?  Torture?

If you work for God and always be devoted to God without doing any sin practically, all your needs will be taken care of in a most wonderful manner. No need of any tension. God will see that everything is fulfilled for you, since you have become like a family member of God due to your unimaginable devotion to God.

Practical service to God without any desire of getting anything in return is the greatest aspect of life and you are called for that... Learn divine knoweldge, it will save you for ever, when practised...

No thanks, I'd rather enjoy my suffering.
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« Reply #721 on: November 20, 2010, 03:28:47 AM »

in other words, there is more than one God.  How does Islam reconcile with your belief in multiple Gods?


How many times i have to tell you that there is only one God. The same GOd come as human incarnation. Recognising Him is the spirituality all about. What is the use of past human incarnations, they can never speak a single word to you. THe same past human incarnation is present in the present generation.

Datta means God available for souls. He is available in the human form with materialized body since human beings are with materialized bodies.

The same God is available in energetic body to angels and to the departed souls from the earth, since both angels and the departed souls are in the energetic bodies. The angels are the souls in permanent energetic bodies, whereas the departed souls exist in the energetic bodies till they take the re-birth. The present alive human form of God is most relevant to the present alive human generation.

 Therefore, energetic form of God and also the past human form of God are irrelevant to the present human beings. Hence, the fruits of devotion are given by the contemporary human incarnation only to any present alive human being. Before giving the fruit, you will be tested in two aspects.

1.   The first aspect is the importance you give to God above all your present bonds, which are mainly with your wealth (Dhaneshana), your wife or husband (Dareshana) and with your children (Putreshana). Another main bond is also regarding your attachment to your body and life (Deheshana and Praneshana). The first aspect deals with the position you give to God beyond all these five bonds.

2.   The second aspect is about your recognition of contemporary human incarnation of God through analysis.
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« Reply #722 on: November 20, 2010, 03:31:17 AM »

Thus the human body is only the external dress and the single actor present in all these roles is the same Lord. Hanuman could not recognize Krishna as Rama due to this external dress only.

So Mother Teresa wasn't Mother Teresa but an incarnation of your Gods masquerading as a Roman Catholic nun in Kolkata?   Huh

If Mother Teresa were God in human form, she would have preached wonderful divine knoweldge. She was not GOD in human form, she was a saint who simply followed the social service in the name of God.

In other words, Mother Teresa worked under you.

Jesus was God in human form since He came to preach the divine knowledge and uplift the human souls spiritually.

Not the Jesus that I was taught.

Jesus told, I (the human incarnation) will not be with you all time, and hence when you serve Me you are serving God alone, poor people will be there all the time. But human incarnation is very rare and identification of Him is very very difficult. My mission is divine knowledge propagation. When knowledge is propagated and when it is listened by the people and practiced practically, it will transform them then all other needs of the souls will be fulfilled by God. Thus the medicine is the divine knowledge which cure any disease like suffering......

Did you write your own Bible translation to suit these New-Age belief systems?


God comes for knowledge preaching not for social service, social service is included in the knowledge propagation once the knoweldge is preached it transform the society. For example in the early days after the exit of Jesus, the poeple (christians) lived like a one family sharing everything they had. This was because they learned divine knoweldge from the disciples of Jesus who ever assocaited with Jesus when He was alive. Hence the knowledge learnt from Jesus was given to those people by the disciples and it transformed them and they lived in unity.

But due to selfshness one couple do not follow the knowledge and they did not give the money which they got after selling their property. Even after hearing the divine knoweldge they were not able to over come the selfishness and hence they were punished for a transformation by their death...

Now I know what an Ashram is like and have more reasons to stay away from anything resembling one.  Thanks, dattaswami, Venu, whatever your name is.   Roll Eyes  Since you're God, I can't ask a higher deity to bless you; so bless yourself on my behalf.   Smiley
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« Reply #723 on: November 20, 2010, 03:33:16 AM »


Mother Teresa helped the poor and preached divine knowledge to them.

How it is going to matter if Mother Teresa were human incarnation or not??!!!

Suppose she were human incarnation, how you are going benifit?

Suppose she were not human incarnation, in that case also how you are going to benefit?

You can get benefited by seeing the kindness she shown to poor people in the name of God and you can try to do it to others also.


Now Mother Teresa is not with us.

But present human incarnation is with us who is giving us the divine knowledge. Past human incarnations cannot talk to us. Present human incarnation alone can talk to us.

When Jesus came He told the same. Mosses cannot talk a single word to Jews since He was dead when Jesus came to them. Now at that point of time, Jesus was the present human incarnation and people there should listen to the present human form...


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« Reply #724 on: November 20, 2010, 03:35:29 AM »

in other words, there is more than one God.  How does Islam reconcile with your belief in multiple Gods?


How many times i have to tell you that there is only one God. The same GOd come as human incarnation. Recognising Him is the spirituality all about. What is the use of past human incarnations, they can never speak a single word to you. THe same past human incarnation is present in the present generation.

Datta means God available for souls. He is available in the human form with materialized body since human beings are with materialized bodies.

The same God is available in energetic body to angels and to the departed souls from the earth, since both angels and the departed souls are in the energetic bodies. The angels are the souls in permanent energetic bodies, whereas the departed souls exist in the energetic bodies till they take the re-birth. The present alive human form of God is most relevant to the present alive human generation.

 Therefore, energetic form of God and also the past human form of God are irrelevant to the present human beings. Hence, the fruits of devotion are given by the contemporary human incarnation only to any present alive human being. Before giving the fruit, you will be tested in two aspects.

1.   The first aspect is the importance you give to God above all your present bonds, which are mainly with your wealth (Dhaneshana), your wife or husband (Dareshana) and with your children (Putreshana). Another main bond is also regarding your attachment to your body and life (Deheshana and Praneshana). The first aspect deals with the position you give to God beyond all these five bonds.

2.   The second aspect is about your recognition of contemporary human incarnation of God through analysis.

I don't recognize you as God; however, since you said you were God, I'm following proper protocols of acknowledging (and mocking) you as a Deity even though I'm also fueling your ego at the same time.  At Judgment Day, I'll know who the real God is and it surely won't be you even though we may talk about cars and other things in those cozy eternal flames....
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« Reply #725 on: November 20, 2010, 03:37:05 AM »


By what means?  Torture?

Punishment given for a sin is only to change the mind of the soul and purify it. There is no trace of revenge in this. The hell is an indication of the intensive love of God to the souls through which God wants to reform the souls. The hell indicates the hectic effort of God put on the soul to reform it and not to leave the soul for its fate.

 A father may leave his son since he is not changing inspite of all his efforts. But in the hell God puts serious effort and succeeds to change the soul. Therefore, even thousands of fathers cannot be equal to God. God is not leaving the soul without changing it and this point is indicated by the punishment and hell. Therefore, there is no point of excusing the Prarabhdas if this true basis is understood. God will try to change the soul through preaching as far as possible. Punishment in the hell is the last resort. Once the soul is reformed all the sins are smashed since there is neither the necessity of preaching nor the necessity of punishment.

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« Reply #726 on: November 20, 2010, 03:39:18 AM »

At Judgment Day, I'll know who the real God is and it surely won't be you even though we may talk about cars and other things in those cozy eternal flames....

Generally people will think that GOd is some where in heaven and they will see Him in the judgment day etc. and they think that they are already greatest beloved of God etc etc.

God is present in this world only!!!!!God and salvation are right here

The Lord appears as a human incarnation in order to make Himself available to our direct perception. Thus He satisfies the Vedic statement 'yat sak?at aparok?at brahma, which means that the Lord is available to direct perception right here. The bhagavad gita also says the same thing; “manu?i? tanumasritam. When the Lord takes human form, it is important to recognize Him as the Lord. Prophet Mohammed gave thirty three signs to identify the human incarnation of the Lord.

Thus actually Islam also accepts the human incarnation of God although the prevalent form of the religion is averse to this concept. When these signs are followed the human incarnation can be identified and the statements of the scriptures which assert the direct perception or pratyak?a prama?a are satisfied. People cannot accept God right in front of them owing to their ego and jealousy.

They try to place God in some other world and some later time (after death). These are people with a lower maturity. The mature people who have conquered their ego and jealousy accept God in human form in this world. The ?gveda says ihacetavedit atha satyamasti na cetmahati vina??i, which means, “That which is here is true. That which is not here is not true”. The acceptance of the Lord right here, available to direct perception is desirable as it satisfies a scientist or a rationalist too. Science is based on direct perception as the means to establish the validity or existence of a statement or an entity. From the above discussion, God in human form is not an obscure, unverifiable entity. He is available here and now for direct perception. 'yat sak?at aparok?at brahma means that God is here itself. He is not to be known through some other medium of questionable validity but by direct perception. The statement that God is here, does not mean that every individual soul is God. The individual soul is certainly different from God. However God has taken up a particular human body and lives among us.

Salvation is freedom from all worldly bonds. It is also here. It is not in some other world. In this world we have a lot of attachments. These bonds with other souls and material things impede our salvation. All such bonds are temporary and changing. Today we are attached to some person and tomorrow to someone else. Salvation consists in breaking all such temporary bonds. This is achieved by developing and nurturing the single permanent bond with God. In no relation, or no action performed for any other soul here, is there permanence. By attaching to God alone can one free oneself from all the temporary bonds of the world.

The soul is made of the life energy or the superior energy called para prak?ti. The para prak?ti is a drop in the ocean of the totality of the superior energy called the para sakti or maya. The para sakti is the Power of the Lord. It gives rise to Creation. The individual soul has attachments to other souls which are also para prak?ti. Additionally it also has attachments with material things which are a grossified (inert) form of the para prak?ti called as apara prak?ti. The apara prak?ti includes all inert objects such as wealth, land, house, cars and so on. Now the individual soul is in this world. It has bonds to other souls and to inert objects, which are both in this world. The breaking of these bonds is also in this world. Therefore salvation is in this world. It is here and now. It is not after death, in some other unknown world.
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« Reply #727 on: November 20, 2010, 03:41:27 AM »

Mother Teresa helped the poor and preached divine knowledge to them.

There, corrected that for you.  See, maybe I get some extra credit for helping a Deity with his grammar and punctuation.   Wink

How it is going to matter if Mother Teresa were human incarnation or not??!!!

Suppose she were human incarnation, how you are going benifit?

How does Mother Teresa benefit me?  She never benefited me.

Suppose she were not human incarnation, in that case also how you are going to benefit?

Same answer.  She never benefited me.

You can get benefited by seeing the kindness she shown to poor people in the name of God and you can try to do it to others also.

I am suffering because I did exactly what you suggested although you and I disagree on why that suffering exists.

Now Mother Teresa is not with us.

She hasn't been reincarnated?   Huh

But present human incarnation is with us who is giving us the divine knowledge. Past human incarnations cannot talk to us. Present human incarnation alone can talk to us.

But what about future human incarnations?

When Jesus came He told the same. Mosses cannot talk a single word to Jews since He was dead when Jesus came to them. Now at that point of time, Jesus was the present human incarnation and people there should listen to the present human form...

Moses was transfigured along with Elijah.  What's the best that Hinduism/Buddhism can do ... turn someone into an elephant?

Venu, I'm starting to think that you're a computer program or someone's University AI project because your cut and paste jobs are not corresponding with my comments.  Your reply #723 talks about Islam which you replied to in reply #715.  I'd be pleasantly surprised if I stumped someone's PhD thesis in AI (Artificial Intelligence) but please do not waste our time....
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« Reply #728 on: November 20, 2010, 03:58:02 AM »


But what about future human incarnations?


Future human incarnations are for future generations....

Present human incarnation is for present generation.

You are in the present generation. You can talk to present human incarnation only...
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« Reply #729 on: November 20, 2010, 12:33:44 PM »

dattaswami, you've inspired me to start reading about Hinduism.  For that, I thank you.

However, not one of the books I've read - or the actual Hindus I've spoken with (there are quite a few in Southern California) - identifies YOU as "the present incarnation of God".

In fact, the nice Hindu lady at the Post Office, who I chat with on her breaks sometimes, looked at one of your posts, giggled, and said, "No no, he is not God in human form - he is just crazy guy!"

I rest my case. Smiley
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« Reply #730 on: November 20, 2010, 02:02:06 PM »

Venu, how can you be the reincarnation of Buddha if there are three living Buddhas?   

How can you be all the incarnations of the thousands of Hindu gods?

Are you the incarnation of Zeus?  How about Jupiter?  Atum?

 
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« Reply #731 on: November 20, 2010, 02:15:29 PM »

Venu, how can you be the reincarnation of Buddha if there are three living Buddhas?   
Each sentient being can realize Buddha-hood. So, potentially, there are as many Buddhas as there are sentient beings.
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« Reply #732 on: November 20, 2010, 04:13:07 PM »

Venu, how can you be the reincarnation of Buddha if there are three living Buddhas?   
Each sentient being can realize Buddha-hood. So, potentially, there are as many Buddhas as there are sentient beings.
Thanks for the clarification.  So, if I can become a Buddha, what do I need Venu for?  And, if I don't want to realize Buddha-hood, the Dalai Lama has more appeal than Venu.

I'm still waiting for his answer to Parts Two and Three of my question.
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« Reply #733 on: November 20, 2010, 06:47:13 PM »


But what about future human incarnations?


Future human incarnations are for future generations....

Present human incarnation is for present generation.

You are in the present generation. You can talk to present human incarnation only...

So there is no gift of prophecy directed at future generations other than future "Gods in human form" deceiving those who are gullible enough to fall for these games of semantics (e.g. the late Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh)?   Huh
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« Reply #734 on: November 20, 2010, 11:14:47 PM »

dattaswami, you've inspired me to start reading about Hinduism.  For that, I thank you.

However, not one of the books I've read - or the actual Hindus I've spoken with (there are quite a few in Southern California) - identifies YOU as "the present incarnation of God".

In fact, the nice Hindu lady at the Post Office, who I chat with on her breaks sometimes, looked at one of your posts, giggled, and said, "No no, he is not God in human form - he is just crazy guy!"

I rest my case. Smiley

Any X, Y and Z is not a standard for human incarnation. When Krishna came to this world, He preached Gita only to Arjuna, only one person!

The identification mark of Human incarnation is not His photo, or look or dress style, it is His divine knowledge. When it is very difficult to identify the human incarnation, how can an ordinary person can identify it for you!!, whatever may be his or her religion!

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« Reply #735 on: November 20, 2010, 11:17:54 PM »


However, not one of the books I've read - or the actual Hindus I've spoken with (there are quite a few in Southern California) - identifies YOU as "the present incarnation of God".


Shri Datta Swami;Nostradamus’s Great Genius
By Dr. Nikhil, Dept. of Energy, University of Florida, U.S.A.
 
Michel Nostradamus was a brilliant French prophet and physician of the 16th century. He made deeply insightful prophecies in the form of encrypted verses called as quatrains. Large portions of his prophecies have come true. In his letters to his son César Nostradamus and King Henry II of France, he clearly revealed that his prophecies were divinely inspired. He was a great devotee and made these prophecies on the command of God. He had a sound knowledge of astrology and planetary movements. Although the visions were natural or instinctive to him, he integrated them with astrological calculations and planetary events. However, he lived in the troubled times of the Inquisition. To avoid persecution and the hatred of evil people, he codified the prophecies into obscure verses such that their literal meaning hardly makes any sense. The language used by Nostradamus was highly symbolic and he often additionally encrypted his prophecies by the use of anagrams, scrambling the order of events, using different languages, etc.

He admitted that he knew and saw much more than what he wrote. However he did not reveal all that to the public since the majority was not prepared to understand all that he had to say in the right spirit. Thus today we have only a small fraction of what Nostradamus saw; the rest was censored by him due to its unsuitability for the public and due to the inevitable negative reaction of political and religious leaders towards predicted future changes.

The censored part was not simply details of future events as one may be tempted to think but it also contained the philosophical content, which formed the background of the future events. It was mainly this philosophical content that Nostradamus was afraid of revealing in his time of the Inquisition, when anything different from what was accepted by the Church, would be quickly branded as heresy. Thus when we read his quatrains, especially those with some philosophical significance, we have to be sensitive not only to what is said but also to what is left unsaid.

Numerous authors, thinkers and amateurs have delved into the details of these quatrains, sifting for some clue to the unraveling of critical future events and personalities such as World War III, the Antichrist, changes in world politics and global catastrophes. However the prophecy that is most spectacular and has the potential for maximum benefit to humanity is the prophecy of the Great Genius.
There is considerable agreement that a great scholar will emerge from the land bounded by three seas. He will be well versed in the scriptures and science and Thursday will be holy to him (cI-50). He will uproot fanaticism and establish his spiritual philosophy (cIII-95). This quite obviously indicates that the said scholar will be a Hindu from India . Contrary to some opinions, He will not be a military general. His conquests will not be military conquests but they will be philosophical conquests—spiritual conquests. With His compelling philosophy He will demolish all fanaticism, rigidity and misinterpreted twists in all religions. A significantly noteworthy point is that He will not only correlate all the world religions, but He will also correlate science and spirituality and establish a universal spiritual philosophy (cVII-14). Although Nostradamus has accurately predicted some of these details of the Great Genius, he has left a great deal unsaid about the identity of this Great One.

Away from the din of contradicting opinions and speculations among commentators and scholars, about the identity and time of arrival of the Great Genius, He has already taken birth. True to prophecy, He was born in a small town in south India (peninsular India ) and is a great scholar of the Hindu scriptures and the scriptures of other religions. He is also a scientist and a professor. However, he is not an ordinary scientist or scholar of the scriptures. He is known to His closest devotees as an incarnation of Lord Dattatreya.

Lord Dattatreya (Datta) is God in the three forms, Creator, Maintainer and Destroyer of creation. This God, who is beyond creation manifests through a human form called as a human incarnation or Avatara. Thus God gives Himself to His devotees. Datta is this God who is ‘given’ to His devotees in the form of an incarnation. Thursday is the day that is particularly auspicious for the worship of Lord Datta. This Great Genius, who is an incarnation of Lord Dattatreya, is known as His Holiness Shri Datta Swami. Shri Datta Swami has preached Divine Knowledge that is so revolutionary and outstanding that highly elevated spiritual souls and scholars and have declared that such knowledge has never been revealed before to mankind. His Divine Knowledge consists of a logical and scientific analysis of the knowledge given in the scriptures and which supports experience. It explains the nature of the soul, the spiritual goal, which is God, and the path to reach Him. Complete assimilation of this knowledge leads to devotion and service, which brings the ultimate grace of God.

In the past, the coming of Christ, the Savior was similarly prophesied by prophets before Him. Their prophecies were also in a symbolic language. But many people took the prophecies literally. When the Christ actually came, He was neither a king nor a freedom fighter who would free the Jews from the tyrannical Roman rule. He neither established a kingdom of the Jews nor did He destroy the Roman Empire . He was a king in the symbolic sense. In fact He was the King of kings. He established the kingdom of God on earth. He freed people from the slavery of ignorance. The Christ came, accomplished His mission on earth as per the prophecies and went back to the heavenly abode. Two thousand years have passed since; yet some ignorant people have still not recognized Him. They are still waiting for the Savior to come!

We are in a similar situation today. The prediction of the Great Genius is in a highly symbolic and encrypted language. Mature and sensitive people quickly grasp the inner meaning of prophecies and scriptures. Rigid and immature people lack insight and are under the grip of ego and jealousy. They insist on the literal meaning, however ridiculous, and refuse to accept the reality that is staring them in the face. The prophecy of Nostradamus is not scripture. However prophecies similar to the prophecy of the Great Genius occur in many scriptures. This is indeed the same as the second coming of the Christ mentioned in the Bible and the incarnation of Kalki mentioned in the Hindu scriptures. In these scriptures again, similar symbolic language is used. Whether it is the prophecy of Nostradamus or the words of the scripture, ignorant people are sure to miss the real meaning. They fail to derive any benefit out of it.

The Divine Personality of Shri Datta Swami and His Divine Knowledge require no support from either prophets or scriptures. God is self-resplendent and requires no flickering candles and torches to illuminate Him. But our tiny minds require the crutches of scriptures, prophecies, logic and miracles. God in all His divine kindness has provided all these supports for us. While preaching His Divine Knowledge, Shri Datta Swami not only quotes from various scriptures but also correlates crucial philosophical concepts among different scriptures (cVII-14). In the past, adequate clarity and correlation of many such concepts was not provided. Hence there were many contradictions between different philosophies and religions. The greatest achievement was the correlation of science with spirituality. Many preachers and scientists have attempted this correlation in the recent past; but none can compare with the outstanding philosophy of Shri Datta Swami. A careful reader who reads and analyzes with patience, will soon see the wonderful panoramic picture—a coherent universal philosophy—that emerges from the teaching of Shri Datta Swami. It addresses all the main aspects required in a universal philosophy:

1   Unimaginable Absolute God who is beyond creation,
2   The primordial cosmic energy which is the basic fabric of the entire creation,
3   Science, which is the analysis of this energy and its different manifestations, which are matter, energy and awareness.
4   The science of miracles: evidence of the inexplicable powers of God (cIII-2).
5   The soul, its nature, its spiritual effort and its approach to God
6   The spiritual path that includes Divine Knowledge, devotion and service to God.
7   The worldly path, which includes the interaction of an individual with society and the laws governing it.
8   Correlation of the philosophies of different religions and science

This is the real Grand Unified Theory. The grand unified theory that the physicists hope to achieve is far from a complete and comprehensive theory. It does not include philosophy, God, scriptures or even the soul. It is restricted only to the material world. At the most it can be called a partial theory. The universal philosophy given by Shri Datta Swami will form the framework of analysis of scientists and philosophers of the future. Within this framework, both scientists and philosophers will have adequate scope to investigate further and ‘fill in the details’.
 
We are most fortunate to be living in this great age. Yes, the world is plagued by terrible injustice, oppression, degradation of values and suffering. But behold, the Great Genius has arrived! Christ has returned—in flesh! Bhagawan Kalki has incarnated! He has come riding the swift white horse of modern electronic communication, which travels at lightening speed. He holds the blazing sword of Divine Knowledge and chops off the heads of ignorance in people’s minds. He will establish permanent world peace. He will fulfill all the scriptures and religions of the world and end the gap between science and spirituality.
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« Reply #736 on: November 20, 2010, 11:27:02 PM »

Moderators, you do a fantastic job on here. Seriously though, this is spam. A small essay on Nostradamas? Come on! Am I way off base here?
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« Reply #737 on: November 20, 2010, 11:38:24 PM »

Venu, I have no doubt that your deluded "devotees" think you are God.  The above tripe doesn't convince us of anything.  You are no more God than I am.  Get it through your head, WE DON'T, AND NEVER WILL, ACCEPT YOUR FALSE TEACHINGS.  
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« Reply #738 on: November 20, 2010, 11:41:35 PM »

"Aquinas" redirects here. For other uses, see Aquinas (disambiguation).
Thomas Aquinas

Thomas Aquinas depicted in stained glass
Born   Thomas Aquinas
1225
Aquino, Kingdom of Sicily
Died   7 March 1274 (aged 49)
Fossanova, Kingdom of Sicily
Occupation   priest, philosopher, theologian
Genres   Scholasticism, Thomism
Subjects   Metaphysics, Logic, Mind, Epistemology, Ethics, Politics
Notable work(s)   Summa Theologica
Influences
Aristotle, Averroes, Avicenna, Albertus Magnus, Paul the Apostle, Boethius, Eriugena, Anselm, Maimonides, Augustine of Hippo, John of Damascus
Influenced
Giles of Rome, Godfrey of Fontaines, Hooker, Locke, Dante, Leibniz, Martain, Gilson, Anscombe, Donoso Cortés, Eckhart, Chesterton, Joyce, Kenny, Pope Pius XII, Carvalho; See also Thomism, Roman Catholic theology, Mortimer J. Adler, Cornelio Fabro, Fulton J. Sheen, Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange
Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P., also Thomas of Aquin or Aquino; (Aquino, 1225 – Fossanova, 7 March 1274) was an Italian priest of the Catholic Church in the Dominican Order, and an immensely influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism, known as Doctor Angelicus (the Angelic Doctor) and Doctor Communis or Doctor Universalis (the Common or Universal Doctor).[1] He is frequently referred to as Thomas because "Aquinas" refers to his residence rather than his surname. He was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology, and the father of the Thomistic school of philosophy and theology. His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy was conceived as a reaction against, or as an agreement with his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law and political theory.

Aquinas is held in the Catholic Church to be the model teacher for those studying for the priesthood.[2] The works for which he is best-known are the Summa Theologica and the Summa Contra Gentiles. One of the 33 Doctors of the Church, he is considered the Church's greatest theologian and philosopher. Pope Benedict XV declared: "The Church has declared Thomas' doctrine to be her own."[3]

Hide Early years and desire to become a Dominican (1225-1240)

Aquinas was born in Aquino c. 1225, according to some authors in the father Count Landulf of Aquino's castle placed in Roccasecca, in the same Contea di Aquino (Kingdom of Sicily, in the present-day: Lazio). Through his mother, Theodora Countess of Theate, Aquinas was related to the Hohenstaufen dynasty of Holy Roman emperors.[4] Landulf's brother Sinibald was abbot of the original Benedictine abbey at Monte Cassino. While the rest of the Aquinas sons pursued a military career,[5] the family intended for Aquinas to follow his uncle into the abbacy;[6] this would have been a normal career path for a younger son of southern Italian nobility.[4]

At the age of five, Aquinas began his early education at Monte Cassino but after the military conflict that broke out between the Emperor Frederick II and Pope Gregory IX spilled into the abbey in early 1239, Landulf and Theodora had Aquinas enrolled at the studium generale (university) recently established by Frederick in Naples.[7] It was here that Aquinas was probably introduced to Aristotle, Averroes and Maimonides, all of whom would influence his theological philosophy.[8] It was also during his study at Naples that Aquinas came under the influence of John of St. Julian, a Dominican preacher in Naples, who was part of the active effort by the Dominican order to recruit devout followers.[9] Here his teacher in arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music was Petrus de Ibernia.[10]


The Castle of Monte San Giovanni Campano
At age nineteen, Thomas resolved to join the Dominican Order. Aquinas' change of heart did not please his family, who had expected him to become a Benedictine monk.[11] In an attempt to prevent Theodora's interference in Aquinas' choice, the Dominicans arranged for Aquinas to be removed to Rome, and from Rome, sent to Paris.[12] On his way to Rome, his brothers, per Theodora's instructions, seized him as he was drinking from a spring and took him back to his parents at the castle of Monte San Giovanni Campano.[12] He was held for two years in the family homes at Monte San Giovanni and Roccasecca in an attempt to prevent him from assuming the Dominican habit and to push him into renouncing his new aspiration.[8] Political concerns prevented the Pope from ordering Aquinas' release, extending the detention,[13] a detention which Aquinas spent tutoring his sisters and communicating with members of the Dominican Order.[8] Family members became desperate to dissuade Aquinas, who remained determined to join the Dominicans. At one point, two of his brothers hired a prostitute to seduce him, but he drove her away, wielding a burning stick. According to legend, that night two angels appeared to him as he slept and strengthened his determination to remain celibate.[14] By 1244, seeing that all of her attempts to dissuade Aquinas had failed, Theodora sought to save the family's dignity, arranging for Aquinas to escape at night through his window. In her mind, a secret escape from detention was less damaging than an open surrender to the Dominicans. Aquinas was sent first to Naples and then to Rome to meet Johannes von Wildeshausen, the Master General of the Dominican Order.[15]

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In 1245, Aquinas was sent to study at the University of Paris' Faculty of Arts where he most likely met Dominican scholar Albertus Magnus,[16] then the Chair of Theology at the College of St. James in Paris.[17] When Albertus was sent by his superiors to teach at the new studium generale at Cologne in 1248,[16] Aquinas followed him, declining Pope Innocent IV's offer to appoint him abbot of Monte Cassino as a Dominican.[6] Albertus then appointed the reluctant Aquinas magister studentium.[4] After failing in his first theological disputation, Albertus prophetically exclaimed: "We call him the dumb ox, but in his teaching he will one day produce such a bellowing that it will be heard throughout the world."[6]

Aquinas taught in Cologne as an apprentice professor (baccalaureus biblicus), instructing students on the books of the Old Testament and writing Expositio super Isaiam ad litteram (Literal Commentary on Isaiah), Postilla super Ieremiam (Commentary on Jeremiah) and Postilla super Threnos (Commentary on Lamentations).[18] Then in 1252 he returned to Paris to study for the master's degree in theology. He lectured on the Bible as an apprentice professor, and upon becoming a baccalaureus Sententiarum (bachelor of the Sentences)[19] devoted his final three years of study to commenting on Peter Lombard's Sentences. In the first of his four theological syntheses, Aquinas composed a massive commentary on the Sentences entitled Scriptum super libros Sententiarium (Commentary on the Sentences). Aside from his masters writings, he wrote De ente et essentia (On Being and Essence) for his fellow Dominicans in Paris.[6]

In spring of 1296, Aquinas was appointed regent master in theology at Paris and one of his first works upon assuming this office was Contra impugnantes Dei cultum et religionem (Against Those Who Assail the Worship of God and Religion), defending the mendicant orders which had come under attack by William of Saint-Amour.[20] During his tenure from 1256 to 1259, Aquinas wrote numerous works, including: Questiones disputatae de veritate (Disputed Questions on Truth), a collection of twenty-nine disputed questions on aspects of faith and the human condition [21] prepared for the public university debates he presided over on Lent and Advent;[22] Quaestiones quodlibetales (Quodlibetal Questions), a collection of his responses to questions posed to him by the academic audience;[21] and both Expositio super librum Boethii De trinitate (Commentary on Boethius's De trinitate) and Expositio super librum Boethii De hebdomadibus (Commentary on Boethius's De hebdomadibus), commentaries on the works of 6th century philosopher Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius.[23] By the end of his regency, Aquinas was working on one of his most famous works, Summa contra Gentiles.[24]

Saint Thomas Aquinas

St. Thomas Aquinas, by Fra Angelico, O.P.
Doctor of the Church
Born   c. 1229
Aquino, Kingdom of Sicily
Died   7 March 1274 (aged 49)
Fossanuova Abbey, Kingdom of Sicily
Venerated in   Roman Catholic Church
Anglican Communion
Canonized   1323, Avignon, France by Pope John XXII
Major shrine   Church of the Jacobins, Toulouse, France
Feast   28 January (new), 7 March (old)
Attributes   The Summa Theologica, a model church, the Sun
Patronage   All Catholic educational institutions
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Around 1259, Aquinas returned to Naples where he lived until he arrived in Orvieto around September 1261. In Orvieto, he was appointed conventual lector, in charge of the education of friars unable to attend a studium generale. During his stay in Orvieto, Aquinas completed his Summa contra Gentiles, and wrote the Catena Aurea (The Golden Chain).[25] He also wrote the liturgy for the newly created feast of Corpus Christi and produced works for Pope Urban IV concerning Greek Orthodox theology, e.g. Contra errores graecorum (Against the Errors of the Greeks).[24] In 1265 he was ordered by the Dominicans to establish a studium for the Order in Rome at the priory of Santa Sabina, which he did from 1265 until he was called back to Paris in 1268.[26] It was in Rome that Aquinas began his most famous work, Summa Theologica,[25] and wrote a variety of other works like his unfinished Compendium Theologiae and Responsio ad fr. Ioannem Vercellensem de articulis 108 sumptis ex opere Petri de Tarentasia (Reply to Brother John of Vercelli Regarding 108 Articles Drawn from the Work of Peter of Tarentaise).[23] In his position as head of the studium, conducted a series of important disputations on the power of God, which he compiled into his De potentia.[26]

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In 1268 the Dominican Order assigned Aquinas to be regent master at the University of Paris for a second time, a position he held until the spring of 1272. Part of the reason for this sudden reassignment appears to have arisen from the rise of "Averroism" or "radical Aristotelianism" in the universities. In response to these perceived evils, Aquinas wrote two works, one of them being De unitate intellectus, contra Averroistas (On the Unity of Intellect, against the Averroists) in which he blasts Averroism as incompatible with Christian doctrine.[27] During his second regency, he finished the second part of the Summa and wrote De virtutibus and De aeternitate mundi,[26] the latter of which dealt with controversial Averroist and Aristotelian beginninglessness of the world.[28]

Disputes with some important Franciscans such as Bonaventure and John Peckham conspired to make his second regency much more difficult and troubled than the first. A year before Aquinas re-assumed the regency at the 1266-67 Paris disputations, Franciscan master William of Baglione accused Aquinas of encouraging Averroists, calling him the "blind leader of the blind". Aquinas called these individuals the murmurantes (Grumblers).[28] In reality, Aquinas was deeply disturbed by the spread of Averroism and was angered when he discovered Siger of Brabant teaching Averroistic interpretations of Aristotle to Parisian students.[29]

On 10 December 1270, the bishop of Paris, Etienne Tempier, issued an edict condemning thirteen Aristotlelian and Averroistic propositions as heretical and excommunicating anyone who continued to support them.[30] Many in the ecclesiastical community, the so-called Augustinians, were fearful that this introduction of Aristotelianism and the more extreme Averroism might somehow contaminate the purity of the Christian faith. In what appears to be an attempt to counteract the growing fear of Aristotelian thought, Aquinas conducted a series of disputations between 1270 and 1272: De virtutibus in communi (On Virtues in General), De virtutibus cardinalibus (On Cardinal Virtues), De spe (On Hope).[31]

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In 1272 Aquinas took leave from the University of Paris when the Dominicans from his home province called upon him to establish a studium generale wherever he liked and staff it as he pleased. He chose to establish the institution in Naples, and moved there to take his post as regent master.[26] He took his time at Naples to work on the third part of the Summa while giving lectures on various religious topics. On 6 December 1273 Aquinas was celebrating the Mass of St. Nicholas when, according to some, he heard Christ speak to him. Christ asked him what he desired, being pleased with his meritorious life. Thomas replied "Only you Lord. Only you."[32] After this exchange something happened, but Thomas never spoke of it or wrote it down. Because of what he saw, he abandoned his routine and refused to dictate to his socius Reginald of Piperno. When Reginald begged him to get back to work, Aquinas replied: "Reginald, I cannot, because all that I have written seems like straw to me."[33] (mihi videtur ut palea).[34] What exactly triggered Aquinas' change in behavior is believed to be some kind of supernatural experience of God.[35] After taking to his bed, he did recover some strength.[36]

Looking to find a way to reunite the Eastern Orthodox churches with the Catholic Church (the Eastern Orthodox had parted ways with the Catholic Church in A.D. 1054 over doctrinal disputes) Pope Gregory X convened the Second Council of Lyon to be held on 1 May 1274 and summoned Aquinas to attend.[37] At the meeting, Aquinas' work for Pope Urban IV concerning the Greeks, Contra errores graecorum, was to be presented.[38] On his way to the Council, riding on a donkey along the Appian Way,[37] he struck his head on the branch of a fallen tree and became seriously ill again. He was then quickly escorted to Monte Cassino to convalesce.[39] After resting for a while, he set out again, but stopped at the Cistercian Fossanova Abbey after again falling ill.[40] The monks nursed him for several days, and as he received his last rites he prayed: "I receive Thee, ransom of my soul. For love of Thee have I studied and kept vigil, toiled, preached and taught..."[41] He died on 7 March 1274[40] while giving commentary on the Song of Songs.[42]

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In 1277, the same bishop of France, Etienne Tempier, who had issued the condemnation of 1270 issued another, more extensive condemnation. One aim of this condemnation was to clarify that God's absolute power transcended any principles of logic that Aristotle or Averroes might place on it.[43] More specifically, it contained a list of 219 propositions that the bishop had determined to violate the omnipotence of God, and included in this list were twenty Thomistic propositions. Their inclusion badly damaged Aquinas' reputation for many years.[44]

In The Divine Comedy, Dante sees the glorified spirit of Aquinas in the Heaven of the Sun with the other great exemplars of religious wisdom.[45] Dante asserts that Aquinas died by poisoning, on the order of Charles of Anjou;[46] Villani (ix. 218) cites this belief, and the Anonimo Fiorentino describes the crime and its motive. But the historian Ludovico Antonio Muratori reproduces the account made by one of Aquinas' friends, and this version of the story gives no hint of foul play.[47]

Fifty years after the death of Aquinas, Pope John XXII, seated in Avignon, pronounced Thomas a saint.[48] Aquinas' theology had begun its rise to prestige. Two centuries later, in 1567, Pope Pius V proclamied St. Thomas Aquinas a Doctor of the Church and ranked his feast with those of the four great Latin fathers: Ambrose, Augustine of Hippo, Jerome, and Gregory. However, in the same period the Council of Trent would still turn to Duns Scotus before Thomas as a source of arguments in defence of the Church. Even though Duns Scotus was more consulted than Thomas at the Council of Trent, Aquinas had the honor of having his Summa Theologica placed on the altar alongside the Bible and the Decretals.[44]

In his encyclical of 4 August 1879, Pope Leo XIII stated that Aquinas' theology was a definitive exposition of Catholic doctrine. Thus, he directed the clergy to take the teachings of Aquinas as the basis of their theological positions. Leo XIII also decreed that all Catholic seminaries and universities must teach Aquinas' doctrines, and where Aquinas did not speak on a topic, the teachers were "urged to teach conclusions that were reconcilable with his thinking." In 1880, Aquinas was declared patron of all Catholic educational establishments.

In a monastery at Naples, near the cathedral of St. Januarius, a cell in which he supposedly lived is still shown to visitors. His remains were placed in the Church of the Jacobins in Toulouse in 1369. Between 1789 and 1974, they were held in Basilique de Saint-Sernin, Toulouse. In 1974, they were returned to the Church of the Jacobins, where they have remained ever since.

In the General Roman Calendar of 1962,in the Roman Catholic Church, Aquinas was commemorated on 7 March, the day of death. However, in the General Roman Calendar of 1969, even though the norm in the Roman Catholic Church is to remember saints on the day of their death, Aquinas' memorial was transferred to 28 January, the date of the translation of his relics to Toulouse.[49]

Aquinas is honored with a feast day on the liturgical of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America on January 28.

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Main article: Thomism
By profession, Aquinas was a theologian rather than a philosopher. Indeed he nowhere characterizes himself as a philosopher, and the references to philosophers found in his own work refer to pagans rather than Christians.[50] He was, nonetheless, a masterfully skilled philosopher.[51] Much of his work bears upon philosophical topics, and in this sense may be characterized as philosophical. Aquinas' philosophical thought has exerted enormous influence on subsequent Christian theology, especially that of the Roman Catholic Church, extending to Western philosophy in general. Aquinas stands as a vehicle and modifier of Aristotelianism, Augustinian Neoplatonism and Proclean Neoplatonism.

Commentaries on Aristotle

Aquinas wrote several important commentaries on Aristotle, including On the Soul, Nicomachean Ethics and Metaphysics. His work is associated with William of Moerbeke's translations of Aristotle from Greek into Latin.

Epistemology

Aquinas believed "that for the knowledge of any truth whatsoever man needs divine help, that the intellect may be moved by God to its act."[52] However, he believed that human beings have the natural capacity to know many things without special divine revelation, even though such revelation occurs from time to time, "especially in regard to [topics of] a faith."[53]

Revelation

Aquinas believed that truth is known through reason (natural revelation) and faith (supernatural revelation). Supernatural revelation has its origin in the inspiration of the Holy Spirit and is made available through the teaching of the prophets, summed up in Holy Scripture, and transmitted by the Magisterium, the sum of which is called "Tradition". Natural revelation is the truth available to all people through their human nature; certain truths all men can attain from correct human reasoning. For example, he felt this applied to rational ways to know the existence of God.

Though one may deduce the existence of God and his Attributes (One, Truth, Good, Power, Knowledge) through reason, certain specifics may be known only through special revelation (such as the Trinity). In Aquinas' view, special revelation is equivalent to the revelation of God in Jesus Christ. The major theological components of Christianity, such as the Trinity and the Incarnation, are revealed in the teachings of the Church and the Scriptures and may not otherwise be deduced.

Supernatural revelation (faith) and natural revelation (reason) are complementary rather than contradictory in nature, for they pertain to the same unity: truth.

Creation

Aquinas believed life could form from non living material or plant life, a theory of ongoing abiogenesis known as spontaneous generation:

Since the generation of one thing is the corruption of another, it was not incompatible with the first formation of things, that from the corruption of the less perfect the more perfect should be generated. Hence animals generated from the corruption of inanimate things, or of plants, may have been generated then.[54]
Additionally, Aquinas considered Empedocles' theory that various mutated species emerged at the dawn of Creation. Aquinas reasoned that these species were generated through mutations in animal sperm, and argued that they were not unintended by nature; rather, such species were simply not intended for perpetual existence. This discussion is found in his commentary on Aristotle's Physics:

The same thing is true of those substances which Empedocles said were produced at the beginning of the world, such as the ‘ox-progeny’, i.e., half ox and half man. For if such things were not able to arrive at some end and final state of nature so that they would be preserved in existence, this was not because nature did not intend this [a final state], but because they were not capable of being preserved. For they were not generated according to nature, but by the corruption of some natural principle, as it now also happens that some monstrous offspring are generated because of the corruption of seed.[55]
Ethics

Aquinas's ethics are based on the concept of "first principles of action."[56] In his Summa Theologica, he wrote:

“   Virtue denotes a certain perfection of a power. Now a thing's perfection is considered chiefly in regard to its end. But the end of power is act. Wherefore power is said to be perfect, according as it is determinate to its act.[57]   ”
Aquinas defined the four cardinal virtues as prudence, temperance, justice, and fortitude. The cardinal virtues are natural and revealed in nature, and they are binding on everyone. There are, however, three theological virtues: faith, hope, and charity. These are supernatural and are distinct from other virtues in their object, namely, God:

“   Now the object of the theological virtues is God Himself, Who is the last end of all, as surpassing the knowledge of our reason. On the other hand, the object of the intellectual and moral virtues is something comprehensible to human reason. Wherefore the theological virtues are specifically distinct from the moral and intellectual virtues.[58]   ”
Furthermore, Aquinas distinguished four kinds of law: eternal, natural, human, and divine. Eternal law is the decree of God that governs all creation. Natural law is the human "participation" in the eternal law and is discovered by reason.[59] Natural law, of course, is based on "first principles":

“   . . . this is the first precept of the law, that good is to be done and promoted, and evil is to be avoided. All other precepts of the natural law are based on this . . .[60]   ”
The desires to live and to procreate are counted by Aquinas among those basic (natural) human values on which all human values are based. However, Aquinas was vehemently opposed to non-procreative sexual activity. This lead him to view masturbation, oral sex, and even coitus interruptus, as being worse than incest and rape when the act itself is considered (apart from the abuse suffered by the violated party). He also objected to sexual positions other than the missionary position, on the assumption that they made conception more difficult.[61][62][63]

Human law is positive law: the natural law applied by governments to societies. Divine law is the specially revealed law in the scriptures.

Aquinas also greatly influenced Catholic understandings of mortal and venial sins.

Aquinas denied that human beings have any duty of charity to animals because they are not persons. Otherwise, it would be unlawful to use them for food. But this does not give us license to be cruel to them, for "cruel habits might carry over into our treatment of human beings."[64]

Aquinas contributed to economic thought as an aspect of ethics and justice. He dealt with the concept of a just price, normally its market price or a regulated price sufficient to cover seller costs of production. He argued it was immoral for sellers to raise their prices simply because buyers were in pressing need for a product.[65][66]

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« Reply #739 on: November 20, 2010, 11:45:23 PM »

Venu, how can you be the reincarnation of Buddha if there are three living Buddhas?    

How can you be all the incarnations of the thousands of Hindu gods?

Are you the incarnation of Zeus?  How about Jupiter?  Atum?

 

Ganapathi Sachidanada Swami-Shri Sathy Sai Baba-His Holiness Shri Dattaswami


There is only one God. God can exists in different human incarnations to carryout the mission of divine knowledge propagation at the same time.

Now for this generation, GOd has exhibited in three forms.

Ganapathi Sachidanada Swami-Shri Sathy Sai Baba-His Holiness Shri Dattaswami

All three are alive, and the same God exists in them.

But all the three caters to different spiritual levels of peoples. At the highest level true divine knoweldge is preached. Shri Sathy Sai Baba mainly promote loving each other, social service etc so that the peace in the society is maintained. Ganapathi Sachidanada Swami, propagate devotion aspect in people through Bhajans etc.

If you want to get divine knowledge in its purest form you have to catch the human incarnation who preaches wounderful divine knowledge. It does not mean that God is incapable of preaching divine knowledge through other 2 preachers. The other 2 preachers cater to people at lower spiritual level.

Each preacher has a specified cassette, which is meant to a particular level of the devotees.  The devotees of a particular level cannot concentrate in one place, since they are scattered all over the earth.  As the level goes down, the attracted souls increase in number because the majority of souls are at the bottom level only.  Schools are many. Colleges are few.  Universities are rare.

      Sri Satya Sai Baba is the reincarnation of Sri Shiridi Sai Baba, who was a Purnaavatara.  This means that there is no need to tell that Sri Satya Sai Baba is a purnaavatara.  He has started with strengthening the foundation to protect the faith of God, which is the basic stage.  For this purpose, the majority of the society is in the underground level requiring the level of foundation only.  If the foundation is not there, today no body will hear the knowledge delivered through this Datta Swami.  For such foundation, which is the faith in the existence of God, the demonstration of a variety of miracles is needed involving the super power, especially in the present atmosphere of scientific achievements.

Sri Ganapathi Satchidananda Swami erected walls on this foundation, which involve the representative worship for the higher level.  Once the existence of God is accepted, people like to worship God.  In this stage, the concept of human incarnation cannot be introduced because the level of jealousy and egoism is not at all subsided in this level.  People accept God but cannot accept the human incarnation.  Therefore, the human forms represented by statues have to be worshipped so that training is given to develop the psychology to worship the human form of the God.  In course of time, during this training the jealousy and egoism are expected to come down.  Swamiji has introduced the word Datta in this level.  He told that every form represented by the statue is Datta only.  Rama, Krishna etc., are God given (Datta) to human beings.  Siva, Vishnu etc., are God given (Datta) to souls in energetic bodies existing in the upper world.  These energetic forms are also in human structure only.


 Since, these forms are not human forms on the earth; the jealousy is satisfied in the beginning.  But the human form is already introduced. Slowly the human forms on this earth are introduced, when the jealousy comes down to the lowest level.  But still since these human forms on the earth do not exist at present, the jealousy gets pacified on this point. I have laid the foundation through Sri Satya Sai and erected the walls through Swamiji.  Now the roof on the walls is left over which is being done through this fellow, Datta Swami.  

At this level the real meaning of the word Datta is revealed, which is that Datta is God given to the human beings on this earth through the present human form only.  Please do not misunderstand that the roof is at the highest level.  The roof cannot exist without walls and walls cannot exist without the foundation.  Thus, the roof completely depends on the walls and foundation only.  Thus, the strength of this Datta Swami is only these two human forms of God.  Therefore, egoism cannot enter the mind of Datta Swami due to this logical analysis.  Without these two there is no need or existence of this roof.  
« Last Edit: November 20, 2010, 11:47:09 PM by dattaswami » Logged
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« Reply #740 on: November 20, 2010, 11:46:35 PM »

Barking dog reaction

The "Barking Dog" is an exothermic chemical reaction that results from the ignition of a mixture of carbon disulfide and nitric oxide [1].

It has been known for centuries; in 1853, Justus von Liebig was using the bright blue flash and the distinctive ‘woof’ sound of the demonstration to enthrall his students.

In simple terms, the ‘Barking Dog’ reaction is a combustion process, in which a fuel (carbon disulfide, CS2) reacts with an oxidiser (nitric oxide (NO) or nitrous oxide (N2O)), producing heat and elemental sulfur. The flame front in the reaction is a zone of very hot, luminous gas, produced by the reactants decomposing.

External links

University of Leeds Barking Dog site
Page linking to a recorded lecture on the reaction
Elementary Productions: Small scale Barking Dog reaction @ youtube
Barking Dog Reaction How to Do the Barking Dog Chemistry Demonstration
References

^ Taming the Barking Dog Seabourne, Ché Royce; Maxwell, George; Wallace, James. J. Chem. Educ. 2006 83 751. Link
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« Reply #741 on: November 20, 2010, 11:49:49 PM »

Alabama

In Mobile (Lower Alabama), Willy Dog, made famous by the Dew Drop Inn, consists of a bright pinkish-red hot dog topped with ketchup, mustard, chili, sauerkraut, and pickles. LA dogs are generally served wrapped in foil, from a brown paper bag. During the Mardi Gras season, street vendors sell similar hot dogs, but with a deep fried bun.

In Birmingham, at Pete's Famous and Gus's Hot Dogs, grilled hot dogs are served with sauerkraut, ground beef, and homemade "sauce" that resembles NY red onion sauce. [1]

Arizona

The Sonoran hot dog, found in Tucson, Metro Phoenix, and in neighboring Sonora, Mexico, is a hot dog grilled in a processor or on a griddle, wrapped in Mesquite-smoked bacon, topped with freshly chopped tomatoes, onions, shredded yellow or cotijo cheese, tomatillo salsa or red chili sauce, pinto beans, mayonnaise, ketchup and/or mustard, and served on bread and often with a fresh-roasted chili. It originated in Hermosillo, the capital of Sonora. [2]

Douglas is known for the hot dog speciality with hot dog trucks lining many of the city's parks, the most famous being Rico's Hot Dogs who have claimed the 10th Street Park as their domain.[3]

California

In Los Angeles, Pink's Hot Dogs promotes its celebrity customers and chili dogs in a wide number of varieties.[4] Local chain Tommy's[5] also has chili dogs alongside its much better-known chili hamburgers, and another local chain The Hat[2], which specializes in pastrami, has them also.

Other notable chains that specialize in hot dogs in Los Angeles include Hot Dog On A Stick, which serves a preparation similar to a corn dog, but with a non-corn breading and Wienerschnitzel, a chain that bills itself as "The World's Largest Hot Dog Chain."[6] The Farmer John Dodger Dog is sold at Dodger Stadium. Street vendors in Los Angeles also serve the very popular "Downtown Dog" a Mexican-style bacon-wrapped hot dog with grilled onions, jalapeño, bell peppers, mustard, ketchup and salsa as condiments. Chicago-style hot dogs can be had at the mini-chain "QT's Chicago Dogs", which imports its ingredients (almost all from the Vienna Beef Co.) from Chicago, and is located throughout the San Fernando Valley. Recently, Chicago-area hot dog chain Portillo's marked its expansion into the Southern California market with restaurants opening in Buena Park (suburb of Los Angeles in adjacent Orange County, in the vicinity of Knott's Berry Farm amusement park) and also Moreno Valley, adding the classic Chicago-style hot dog and Maxwell Street polish to the numerous varieties of hot dogs available for local consumption.

Especially in the San Fernando Valley area, Cupid's is known for its hot dogs; the best seller is their chili cheese dog. Some of the original style Cupid's hotdog stands have been sold to second owners who radically changed their menu. The original Cupid's dogs such as at Lindley in the Cal State Northridge Area and on Winnetka and Vanowen intersection of Canoga Park still serve only a limited menu. Oki Dog, in West Hollywood, or Oki's Dog, on Pico [7] serves the Original Oki Dog, which is two hot dogs on a flour tortilla, covered with chili and pastrami and wrapped up like a burrito.

Connecticut

Many Connecticut hot dog restaurants are family owned "drive in's" that look more at home in the 1950s. Swanky Frank's of Norwalk, Westport and Newtown is known for their "split" hot dogs. Rawley's of Fairfield is best known for their dual cooked dogs. The hot dog is first dropped into a deep fryer before finishing up on a grill. Other establishments include: Super Duper Weenie of Fairfield, The Windmill of Stratford, Merrit Canteen of Bridgeport, Mr. Mac's Canteen of Monroe and Milford, Danny's of Stratford, Blackie's of Cheshire, Frankie's in Waterbury and other locations, Jimmie's, Chick's, and Turk's of West Haven, Doogies of Newington, JK's of Danbury, and Capitol Lunch of New Britain. Frequent condiments include the brown mustard, sauerkraut, chopped onions, bacon, sweet pickle relish, and ketchup.

District of Columbia

Not actually a hot dog, the half-smoke is a type of smoked sausage (half beef, half pork) found in the greater Washington, DC region. A half-smoke is slightly larger than a regular hot dog, spicier, and with more coarsely ground meat. It is served on a hot dog bun, typically with a spicy, beanless chili, mustard, and onions. The most notable seller of DC half-smokes is Ben's Chili Bowl.

Another variation of the DC hot dog is the monumental dog. Legend[citation needed] has this variation originating from a small local establishment located inside of the borders of Washington, DC called either World of Hotdogs and Pizza or Continental Hotdogs and Pizza. The hot dog consist of a steamed or grilled rectangular all beef hot dog on a steamed potato hot dog bun, with a spread of mayonnaise on the bun, topped with banana peppers, onions, tangy diced red peppers, and sliced pickles.

Georgia

Georgia, especially the southern portion of the state, has a variation called the scrambled dog (or dawg, as it is colloquially known). Originating in Columbus, Georgia, it is a cheap, usually red-skinned hot dog, served on a toasted white bun and topped with mustard and spicy chili. This particular chili contains beans and has large chunks of diced raw onion mixed directly into the prepared sauce before being spooned onto the dog. The Scrambled dog in its traditional configuration was invented at now-defunct cigar store and newspaper stand run by Firm Roberts on Columbus' Broadway beginning in 1908. The most famous purveyor of the dog today is the city's Dinglewood Pharmacy, there it is topped with ketchup, mustard, chili with beans, onions, sliced dill pickles, and oyster crackers.

In the 1940s, Johnnie Wise ate a scrambled dog in Columbus and liked it so much that he added his version of the dog to his menu at Johnnie's Drive-In in Fitzgerald, Georgia. His variation kept the toasted hot dog bun topped with mustard, ketchup, homemade chili, sliced hot dogs, and oyster crackers, but he topped it with sliced dill pickles and slaw. Johnnie's menu also includes the Johnnie Burger, which is a scrambled hamburger topped with slaw.

In Operation Iraqi Freedom 09-10 the Scrambled Dog was used at the Forward Operating Base (FOB) Hammer as a morale booster for 10th Mountain Division Soldier's. The FOB Hammer Scrambled Dog used the traditional red-skinned hot dog, with assorted crushed crackers, chili, jalapeños, cheese sauce, diced onions, shredded cheese, and creamy coleslaw. Additionally, light jazz music was used to set the Scrambled dog ambiance.

Another Georgia variation is the spicy hot dog with a red casing served at Nu-Way Weiner restaurants in Macon and the central part of the state. Nu-Way hot dogs are usually served with chili ("chili dogs") or cole slaw ("slaw dogs").

Another Georgia variation, popular in Georgia north of Atlanta in the 1950s through the 1980s, is the "foot-long, half-n-half." This variation consists of a foot-long hot dog prepared as follows: the entire length of the hot dog is topped with mustard; then half the hot dog's length is topped with coleslaw, and the remainder of its length is topped with chili. A variation of the foot-long half-n-half is to add chopped onion to the chili dog end, but that was usually an option rather than a variation. When finished, you essentially have a slaw dog on one end and a chili dog on the other. It was a favorite among teens at the drive-ins, and it remains a favorite way of making foot-long dogs among older Georgians who remember them from their teens. When ordering the dog at a drive-in, the customer simply asked for "a foot-long, half-n-half." By the 1990s the popularity of the foot-long half-n-half had waned to such an extent that no one working at any of the fast food restaurants or drive-ins knew what the customer meant by "a foot-long, half-n-half."

Hawaii

Puka Dogs from Kauai follow a special recipe with a baked bun-sized loaf of bread, and a “puka” pierced from one end. The bread is then toasted through most of the length of the bun. Relishes and sauces or standard condiments are then poured in. A grilled Polish type sausage made from a combination of meats is then slid in.

Illinois

In Chicago, a Chicago-style hot dog is a steamed all-beef, natural-casing hot dog topped with sliced/diced/wedged tomatoes, both a dill pickle spear and sweet pickle relish (a particularly bright green style of relish, referred to as "neon" green relish), yellow mustard directly on the sausage, pickled sport peppers, and is finished with celery salt, and served on a steamed poppy seed bun.[8] Chicago-style never includes ketchup, though some vendors offer small packets of the condiment for those wanting to add it. Although outside Chicago this style of hot dog is universally associated with the city, equally popular[citation needed] within Chicago is a "Maxwell Street Polish" sausage, usually served on a plain bun with fried or grilled onions and mustard. Both variations are becoming readily available through the nationwide expansions of such Chicago area fast food eateries as Portillo's.[9]

During the 1980s, a variation of the Chicago-style hot dog called the Vance Law Dog[citation needed] was sold at Wrigley Field. It was named in honor of former Chicago Cubs player Vance Law. It was a very popular item and featured a traditional Chicago-style hot dog topped with cole slaw and ketchup.[citation needed] Some fans incorrectly referred to the dog as 'The Vance Slaw Dog' because of the inclusion of cole slaw. The dog was a personal favorite of the late broadcasting legend Harry Caray. It was not unusual for fans to catch Caray eating a Vance Law Dog after singing his famous seventh-inning stretch

The Peoria style hot dog consists of a steamed poppyseed bun, Vienna Beef frank (steamed), tomato slices, and ketchup.

Kansas and Missouri

A Kansas City-style hot dogs include sauerkraut and melted Swiss cheese.(Jakle & Sculle 1999:165)

Maine

The most popular variety of hot dog in Maine is one made with natural casing. The casing is colored red, and are commonly referred to as red hot dogs, though are more commonly known as red snappers.[10] There is also a small restaurant known as "Flo's Hotdogs" in southern Maine along Route 1. Their speciality is a steamed hot dog served with mayonnaise, a homemade sweet onion relish, and celery salt.

Massachusetts

In Boston, hot dogs are often served steamed as opposed to grilled. The Fenway Frank is a fixture for Red Sox fans, and there are several other local brands such as Pearl that are used quite frequently. Hot dogs in the Boston area are associated with Boston baked beans, though this is probably not unique to the region. Ketchup, mustard, relish, picalilli, and chopped onions are the most common toppings.[11]. The Traveler was created in 2009 by a bagpiper in the Boston area, this monstrosity is 2 hotdogs covered with chili, mustard, and blue cheese on a tortilla, with cheddar cheese melted over top.

Hot dogs in northeastern Massachusetts are most often boiled and served with mustard and sweet relish with or without a bun. when they are served with a bun, often a top-loaded bun with no crusts on the side is used. These are sold as "Frankfurt rolls", and may be fried with butter before serving. Hot dogs are served most frequently with baked beans. Many people from this area also serve a sweet dish called brown bread with their hot dogs. Prepared with or without raisins, brown bread is steamed-molasses based, much like English puddings. Brown bread is steamed in a can or jar, and is cut so that there are round slices. This may be eaten with butter or margarine. Some New Englanders will serve the dog either on the plate to be cut or cooked in with the beans.

Hot dogs in southeastern Massachusetts, particularly in the cities of Taunton, Attleboro, & Fall River, are different from the typical Boston hot dog. Unlike Boston, these dogs are slow grilled and served the Coney Island way. Coney Island dogs, which are only connected to Coney island by name, were introduced by Greek immigrants. The dogs are typically served on a steamed bun with a beanless chili known as Coney sauce, chopped onion, mustard and celery salt. Coney island system dogs are similar to the neighboring Rhode Island NY System style; however use Kayem hot dogs rather than the Hot Wiener. Historic places to try these authentic (Southeastern Mass.) Coney island dogs are Nick's in Fall River, Tex Barry's in downtown Taunton, and George's Lunch in Worcester.

Hot dogs in Methuen and neighboring Lawrence are usually boiled, and served with fried onion mixed with melted American cheese. They are served in a top-loaded bun with no crusts on the side. The generous serving of onion and cheese mix is tossed on top of the hot dog. The hot dog is either topped with mustard or left as is. Occasionally garlic is mixed in with the fried onions.

Michigan

In lower Michigan, a chili dog is called a Coney Island and is very specific as to the ingredients: a beef and pork hot dog with natural casing served on a steamed bun, topped with a beanless, all-meat (beef heart) chili, diced yellow onion, and yellow mustard. There are two distinct variations on the Coney dog: Detroit style, made with a sloppier, wet chili, and Flint style, made with chili that is much more dry. With over 350 chain and independent purveyors of these dogs in the metro-Detroit area, an entire restaurant industry has developed from the hot dog and are called Coney Islands.[12]

A mush puppy is a beef hot dog served on a steamed cheddar hot dog bun (deep yellow in color) with melted cheddar sauce and cooked mushroom slices. This is found mostly in southern counties of Michigan.

Nebraska

Fairbury Brand (originally based in Fairbury, NE, and now owned by Wimmers) is famous for their red hot dogs. The color is the color of the famed University of Nebraska-Lincoln Cornhuskers. At Husker football games, one can buy a Fairbury hot dog or catch a free one fired from the sidelines by a guy carrying "Der Weiner Schlinger"--an air-powered cannon that fires foil-wrapped hot dogs into the stands (it is powerful enough to reach the upper deck).

New Jersey

|In the case of New Jersey's potato dog, diced and stewed potatoes are combined with brown mustard and served on spicy brand hot dog. A variant on this (particularly in the Trenton area) is also known as the "Italian hot dog", which features all of the above ingredients, with grilled onions and peppers, and served on a long, crusty roll. The most common brands of spicy hot dogs used are Sabrett's or Best's, both of which are NJ companies.

Several restaurants, such as Clifton's Rutt's Hut, (Levine 2005) serve hot dogs deep-fried in oil. You can get them three ways: an in and outer (just barely kissed by the oil), the ripper (cooked until the skins burst), and the cremator (really well done). Other places like John's Texas Weiners in Newark grill their hot dogs. Texas weiners originated in Paterson, and are either grilled or deep fried hot dogs served with spicy brown mustard, chopped onions and a meat sauce similar to chili. Getting all three condiments is typically described as, "All the Way." The same hot dog variation was created in Altoona, Pennsylvania independently six years earlier.

A traditional Newark Style Dog, as served in Jimmy Buff's and Dickie Dee's or Tommy's Italian Sausage and Hot Dogs in Elizabeth (Levine 2005) are made by cutting a round "pizza bread" in half (for a double) or into quarters (for a single) and cutting a pocket into it and spreading the inside with mustard. A deep-fried dog (or two if it is a double) is stuffed down into the pocket, topped with fried (or sautéed) onions and peppers, and then topped off with crisp-fried potato chunks. A quicker version of this, often simply called a double dog, can also be requested at some lunch trucks, luncheonettes and pizzerias in the state. Instead of the traditional potato round, French fries are substituted and in some spots a Portuguese or sub roll replaces the traditional round bread used.

Another local hot dog variant found in Jersey City is the use of chili onions, which are finely minced onions with a red chili-flavored sauce (no meat.)

At Zinga's Corn Patch, in Lafayette NJ you will find the popular Bull Dog (a 1/4 lb hot dog deep fried and served on a sub roll with white American cheese, relish and crisp bacon).

Max's Famous Hotdogs and The Windmill (hotdog stand) serve flat grilled Kosher style Jersey Shore hot dogs are said to be a favorite of Bruce Springsteen.[citation needed]

New York

In New York City, the natural-casing all-beef hot dogs served at Katz's Delicatessen, Gray's Papaya, Papaya King, Papaya Dog and any Sabrett cart are all made by Sabrett's parent company, Marathon Enterprises, Inc. of East Rutherford, New Jersey (Levine 2005). Nathan's hot dogs, which are all-beef and come in both natural-casing and skinless, were also made by Marathon until several years ago (Levine 2005). Local kosher brands—which are not permitted natural casings—include Hebrew National, Empire National (Levine 2005), and Best's. The usual condiments are mustard and sauerkraut, with optional sweet onions in a tomato based sauce invented by Alan Geisler, usually made by Sabrett. Hot dogs are available on almost every street corner, as well as at delicatessens, at stands that also serve tropical juice drinks such as Papaya King and Gray's Papaya, and at one of the most famous hot dog restaurants in the world, Nathan's Famous in Brooklyn's Coney Island. New York street vendors generally store their unsold dogs in warm-water baths, giving rise to the semi-affectionate moniker "dirty water dog." Bagel dogs are also sold in Manhattan.

In the rest of New York, Red Hots and White Hots are the two most popular local variations. While Red Hots are "normal" hot dogs, White Hots are plumper. These unique dogs are similar to German bockwurst and are most made by Zweigle's of Rochester. These are often served in a natural casing similar to a sausage. These white hot dogs are sometimes known as coneys. They are also known in the Syracuse area where Heid's of Liverpool is one of the oldest hot dog restaurants in the nation, opened in 1886. Heid's allows only mustard as a topping for their flat-grilled sausages. Like Zweigle's white hots, Hoffman's white "snappys" use veal as well as pork (Zweigle's white hots also use beef). There is also a Red Hot variant served throughout the Adirondacks produced by Glazier Packing Company of Potsdam, that is cased in a red-dyed natural sheep casing. A "Glazier" is typically offered on a menu as an alternative to a regular hot dog, usually for a small additional charge. "Michigans" are hot dogs with a meaty sauce - more like "Sloppy Joe" than chili (no chili-oregano-cumin). The Michigan hot dog is served in a buttered-grilled Frankfurt loaf (bun with no crust on the sides).

The Capital District area (Albany, Troy, and Schenectady) is home to a small hot dog. At about 3 inches in length, these are usually served with mustard, onions, and a thin 'meat' sauce. The best known purveyors of these dogs are Gus' in Watervliet, Hot Dog Charlie's at multiple locations, and Famous Lunch in Troy. A local manufacturer is Hembold's in Troy, NY. In Buffalo, New York the hot dog of choice is Sahlen's[13]. chains in the area include Louie's, known for their Texas Red Hots[14], and Ted's, known for their charcoal-broiled hot dogs and famous hot sauce[15].

Mamaroneck's Walter's uses the same unique combination of ingredients Walter Warrington originated in 1919, of pork, beef, and veal (no casing). It is cooked on the grill, split down the middle, browned and served on toasted rolls with either Walter's own brown mustard relish mix, plain brown mustard or ketchup. Westchester Magazine frequently honors it as the best in Westchester. Patrons have to line up outside the 1928 Pagoda style stand throughout the year to get their food. The business has remained in the family with Walter's grandchildren and great-grandchildren still actively involved.

Kingston is the home of Dallas Hot Weiners and Dallas Hot Weiners II, who serve a steamed skinless hot dog topped with their special Dallas Weiner Sauce which is made up of their own recipe of meat sauce, finely chopped onions and mustard. Middletown is the location of Coney Island Restaurant, where a skinless hot dog with a Coney Island Chili Meat sauce is served. Newburgh, New York is home to three restaurants. Pete's Hot Dogs serves natural casing hot dogs on a steamed bun with a variation of toppings such as mustard, sauerkraut, onions and a special Texas Meat Sauce. Newburgh Lunch serves a standard Texas weiner, with "one with everything" featuring mustard, small cubes of onion, and their own Texas sauce, which they sell in jars. Other add ons are available, include cheese and sauerkraut. World's Famous Hot Dogs & Hamburgers serves a Snappy Dog, which is a natural casing hot dog, and a special Marinated Foot Long which is new to the region.

North Carolina and South Carolina

Carolina hot dogs are served with chili and cole slaw, mustard, and onions. Most vendors use coleslaw, but some places use a vinegar-based variation called BBQ slaw, which is an eastern North Carolina variant. This style is called all the way and/or "a slaw dog." The practice of eating coleslaw on hot dogs in the Carolinas probably came from expatriate West Virginians moving south to seek employment.[citation needed] Carolina Packers, a small company in Johnston County produces locally famous skinless red-hot dogs. In North Carolina, a "cheese dog" is made with a hot dog sized chunk of American cheese in place of the sausage; a hot dog with both sausage and cheese is called a "combination dog", and a "deluxe dog" adds bacon. Walter's Grill of Murfreesboro is best known for its "dawgs all the way with slaw."

Ohio

In Cincinnati, a cheese coney is a hot dog topped with Cincinnati chili, mustard, diced onion, and shredded mild cheddar cheese.

Oklahoma

Tulsa is home to Coney I-Lander, a regional favorite that serves miniature chili dogs. The dogs are about 3/4" in diameter and are about 9" long. The chili has a good mix of beef and flour, is slightly spicy, and has a slight separation of oil from the chili base. The dogs are served in a small bun with mustard, and finely shredded medium sharp cheddar is an option for addition.

Pennsylvania

Two common variants are prevalent in the Allentown, Bethlehem, and Easton metro area. The Valley chili dog (more prevalent in the western part of the region) is a grilled dog served on a steamed roll with chili 'meat sauce,' mustard, and onions, as popularized by Yocco's Hot Dogs, and to a lesser extent by Potts'. Often served with deep fried pirogues instead of the traditional side dish of french fries. The second version is a shallow fried dog served on a steamed roll with mustard, chopped white onion, and a dill pickle spear, commonly called a "mop dog". This style is more prevalent in the eastern part of the Lehigh Valley and served by Rich's, Potts' and Jimmy's. They are also served in neighboring Phillipsburg, New Jersey, at Toby's Cup and another Jimmy's, not related to the one in Easton. Blondie's which is located in Catasauqua also adds a new variety to the mix, offering steamed, deep fried & pan fried dogs with over 20+ varieties of toppings.

At PNC Park in Pittsburgh, a hot dog is served called the "Pittsburgh Dog". It is a large 18-inch (460 mm) hot dog served on a hoagie roll with shredded lettuce, diced tomato, dry cole slaw and strips of provolone cheese.

Rhode Island

New York System Hot Wieners have little to do with New York. Weiners are often served "to go" and are wrapped in white paper. New York System Wieners are commonly called "gaggers", pronounced in the local regional accent as "gaggas". The wiener "chef" dresses the wieners by lining them up his bare arm to add dollops of meat sauce, chopped onion, mustard and the essential celery salt. There are several New York System restaurants around the state, but are mostly unrelated.

Unrelated to NY System, a popular natural casing hot dog in Rhode Island for grilling at home is Saugy's. (These franks are called "saugies" and are very common.) Hot dogs purchased from street vendors in Rhode Island usually have condiment options of chopped raw onion and mustard.

Ben's Chili Dog's in Newport are traditionally topped with a thin meat chili, cheese sauce, and/or sauerkraut. Although chili dogs are by far the most popular at Ben's, it is also possible to order a hot dog with ketchup and mustard.

Virginia

Most places in central Virginia serve grilled or lightly deep-fried hot dogs. The quality of the sausage can vary from "all-meat franks" to all-beef products. "All the way" or "everything" can vary slightly, but the root condiments are universally yellow mustard, chili, and onions. Some restaurants will offer coleslaw at an extra charge, while others include coleslaw as the fourth condiment. Although sweet relish is usually available, as is ketchup, these are not automatically added.

Washington

Seattle-style hot dogs are known for the liberal use of cream cheese and onions, usually on a grilled/toasted bun, often with kraut. Other variations include some combination of ketchup, mustard, relish, and mayo. Many establishments offer the option of a salmon dog, as well as a meatless frank (so-called "veggie dogs") for their vegetarian customers.

At Seattle's Safeco Field, home of the Seattle Mariners, "Ivar Dogs" are served. Ivar Dogs are sold in concession stands run by the famous Seattle seafood restaurant of the same name (Ivar's) and are prepared by taking a slice of cod and placing it on a hot dog bun and covering it in coleslaw. The Ivar Dog is one of the largest selling items at Safeco Field.

A Chehalis Breakfast Dog is a hot dog baked in biscuit dough and wrapped with a strip of bacon. This is also known as a Chehalis Pork Wellington or, when cheese is added, a Chehalis Cor-dog Bleu.

West Virginia

In West Virginia, hot dogs are usually served with a beanless chili con carne sauce (simply called chili) and sweet coleslaw or with some combination of the chili sauce, slaw, mustard, and chopped onions. Hot dogs are an obligatory item on the menu of locally owned restaurants in the region.

Hot dogs in Huntington are usually served by default with sauce (essentially a chili sauce). Each of the town's several hot dog stands feature a slightly different variation of sauce, ranging from a pinto bean-based paste to a thick pile of well-seasoned ground beef. Hot dogs with sauce are often ordered with cole slaw, mustard, onions, cheese sauce, and/or ketchup. While most vendors do not charge an additional fee for sauce, many will charge a nominal fee for slaw, onions, and cheese.

Wisconsin

In Williams Bay, both the traditional Chicago Dog Hot and the Danish Hot Dog are served Lakeside on Lake Geneva by SkagenHus on The Lake. The Chicago Dog has the original "Chicago Seven", yellow mustard, pickle spear, neon green Vienna Beef relish, onions, sport peppers, tomato wedges and celery salt. Dogs come in two sizes, the Classic 7 inch long Vienna Beef dog protruding from the ends of the traditional "Marianne" poppy seed bun and the 1/5th Lb Viking Dog which is a mild version of the Vienna Beef skinless Polish. The Danish dog comes in the same size variations and is topped with yellow mustard, Vienna Beef Düsseldorf mustard, ketchup, Danish remoulade sauce, onions, fried Danish onions and Danish pickled cucumbers. With the standard summer migration of Chicago and Northern Illinois residents to their Lake Geneva summer homes, the Chicago Dog has taken hold in Wisconsin. The Danish Hot Dog is also popular.
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« Reply #742 on: November 20, 2010, 11:54:05 PM »

Spring-loaded bar mousetrap


An unprimed mousetrap

A baited and primed spring-loaded bar mousetrap

Mousetrap, mouse, bait (chocolate)
The first spring-loaded mouse trap was invented by William C. Hooker of Abingdon Illinois, who received US patent 528671 for his design in 1894.[1][2] James Henry Atkinson, a British inventor who in 1897 invented a prototype called the "Little Nipper", probably had seen the Hooker trap in the shops or in advertisements and used it as the basis of his model.[3]

It is a simple device with a heavily spring-loaded bar and a trip to release it. Cheese may be placed on the trip as bait, but other food such as oats, chocolate, bread, meat, butter and peanut butter are commonly used. The spring-loaded bar swings down rapidly and with great force when anything, usually a mouse, touches the trip. The design is such that the mouse's neck or spinal cord will be broken, or its ribs or skull crushed, by the force of the bar. The trap can be held over a toilet or bin and the dead mouse released into it by pulling the bar. Rats are much larger than mice; a much larger version of the same type of trap is used to kill them. Some spring mouse traps have a plastic extended trigger made to look like a piece of cheese, although this is a marketing ploy to entice purchasers, not mice.

In 1899, John Mast of Lititz, Pennsylvania, filed a U.S. patent for a modification of Hooker's design that can be "readily set or adjusted with absolute safety to the person attending thereto, avoiding the liability of having his fingers caught or injured by the striker when it is prematurely or accidentally freed or released." [4] He obtained the patent at Nov. 17, 1903.

Some modern plastic designs can be set by the pressure of a single finger on a tab.

Mouth mousetrap


A mouth-type mousetrap.
This lightweight mousetrap consists of a set of plastic jaws operated by a coiled spring and triggering mechanism inside the jaws, where the bait is held. The trigger snaps the jaws shut, killing the rodent.[5]

Electric mousetrap

This more recent type of mousetrap delivers a lethal dose of electricity when the rodent completes the circuit by contacting two electrodes located either at the entrance or between the entrance and the bait. The electrodes are housed in an insulated or plastic box to prevent accidental injury to humans and pets. They can be designed for single-catch domestic use or large multiple-catch commercial use. See U.S. Patent 4,250,655 and U.S. Patent 4,780,985

Live-catching mousetraps


A live-catch mousetrap. Uninjured mice can be released.
Other trap designs catch mice alive so that they can be released into the wild. It is important to release the mouse promptly – as mice can die from stress or dehydration – and at some distance, as mice have a strong homing instinct. Survival after release is not guaranteed, since house mice will tend to seek out human buildings, where they might encounter lethal mousetraps or may be eaten by predators. In the wild, house mice are very poor competitors, and cannot survive away from human settlements in areas where other small mammals, such as wood mice, are present.[6]

Glue traps


A mouse stuck in a glue trap.
Glue traps are made using natural or synthetic adhesive applied to cardboard, plastic trays or similar material. Bait can be placed in the center or a scent may be added to the adhesive by the manufacturer. Glue traps are used primarily for rodent control indoors. Glue traps are not effective outdoors due to environmental conditions (moisture, dust) which quickly render the adhesive ineffective. Glue strip or glue tray devices trap the mouse in the sticky glue;

Animals can be released from the glue by applying vegetable oil [7]and gently working the animal free. This is deemed a compassionate rescue rather than a design feature of glue traps. Most animals trapped by these devices sustain severe injuries including severed limbs and torn skin caused during their attempts to escape. These types of traps are effective and non-toxic to humans.

Death is much slower than with the traditional type trap,[8] which has prompted animal activists and welfare organisations such as PETA and the RSPCA to oppose the use of glue traps. Trapped mice eventually die from exposure, dehydration, starvation, suffocation, or predation, or are killed by people when the trap is checked. In some jurisdictions the use of glue traps is regulated: Victoria, Australia use of glue traps is restricted to commercial pest control operators and they must be used in accordance with conditions set by the Minister for Agriculture[9]. Other jurisdictions have banned their use entirely[10]; in Ireland it is illegal to import, possess, sell or offer for sale unauthorized traps, including glue traps. This law, the Wildlife (Amendment) Act was passed in 2000.[11]

Bucket trap

Bucket traps may be lethal or non-lethal.[12] Both types have a ramp which leads to the rim of a deep-walled container, such as a bucket.

The bucket may contain a liquid to drown the trapped mouse. The mouse is baited to the top of the container where it falls into the bucket and drowns. Sometimes soap or caustic or poison chemicals are used in the bucket as killing agents.

In the non-lethal version, the bucket is empty, allowing the mouse to live, but keeping it trapped. The unharmed mouse can be released outdoors.

The variations are many with some being single catch and some multi-catch.[13]

Mouse RADAR Inert gas mousetrap

The RADAR mousetrap, invented by Rentokil Pest Control, kills trapped mice or other rodents with carbon dioxide, then notifies the user by e-mail so that the trap can be quickly emptied and reset[14]. Rentokil claims that the trap is painless and also reduces future mouse deaths by pinpointing the exact location of the trap and how many animals are caught so that their access can be controlled by sealing access holes. PETA has recognized this product as an "animal friendly achievement" [15].

Disposable

The are several types of one-time use, disposable mousetraps[16][17], generally made of inexpensive materials which are designed to be disposed of after catching a mouse. These mousetraps have similar trapping mechanisms as other traps, however, they generally conceal the dead mouse so it can be disposed of without being seen.
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« Reply #743 on: November 20, 2010, 11:58:53 PM »

Kool-Aid

This article is about the soft drink. For the album by Big Audio Dynamite II see Kool-Aid (album).
Kool-Aid

Type   Drink mix
Owner   Kraft Foods
Country   
Invented: United States
Manufactured: Mexico
Introduced   1927
Markets   Worldwide
Kool-Aid is a brand of flavored drink mix owned by the Kraft Foods Company, and manufactured by its Mexican subsidiary.

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The building in Hastings, Nebraska, where Kool-Aid was invented
Kool-Aid was invented by Edwin Perkins and his wife Kitty in Hastings, Nebraska, United States. All of his experiments took place in his mother's kitchen.[1] Its predecessor was a liquid concentrate called Fruit Smack. To reduce shipping costs, in 1927, Perkins discovered a way to remove the liquid from Fruit Smack, leaving only a powder. This powder was named Kool-Aid. Perkins moved his production to Chicago in 1931 and Kool-Aid was sold to General Foods in 1953.[2]

Hastings still celebrates a yearly summer festival called Kool-Aid Days on the second weekend in August, in honor of their city's claim to fame. Kool-Aid is known as Nebraska's "official soft drink".[3]

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Kool-Aid Man
Kool-Aid Man, a frosty pitcher filled with Kool-Aid, is the mascot of Kool-Aid. The character was introduced shortly after General Foods acquired the brand. In TV and print ads, Kool-Aid Man was known for bursting suddenly through walls of children's homes and proceeding to make a batch of Kool-Aid for them. His catch phrase is "Oh, yeah!" The Kool-Aid Man mascot has been around since the 1960s in their earlier years of production.

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Original 7 flavors[4]   Cherry, Grape, Lemon-Lime,[5] Orange, Raspberry, Strawberry, Root Beer (Discontinued)[6]
Singles flavors[7]   Black Cherry, Tropical Punch, Lemonade, Pink Lemonade, Rhubarb, Cherry
Sugar-Free flavors[citation needed]   Double Double Cherry, Triple Awesome Grape, Lemonade, Soarin' Strawberry Lemonade, Tropical Punch, Raspberry
Agua Frescas flavors[8]   Jamaica, Mandarina-Tangerine, Mango, Tamarindo, Piña-Pineapple
Other flavors worldwide or previously available[8]   Apple, Bunch Berry, Blastin' Berry Cherry, Blue Berry Blast, Cherry, Cherry Cracker, Chocolate, Cola, Eerie Orange, Frutas, Frutas Vermelhas, Golden Nectar, Grape, Grape Blackberry, Grape Tang, Melon Mango, Strawberry Splash, Great Blueberry, Great Blue-dini, Groselha, Guaraná,Ice Blue Raspberry Lemonade, Incrediberry, Kickin-Kiwi-Lime, Kolita, Lemon, Lemonade, Lemonade Sparkle, Lemon-Lime,Lime, Man-o-Mangoberry, Mango, Mountainberry Punch, Oh-Yeah Orange-Pineapple, Orange, Orange Enerjooz, Pina-Pineapple, Pink Lemonade, Pink Swimmingo, Purplesaurus Rex, Rainbow Punch, Raspberry, Roarin' Raspberry Cranberry, Rock-a-Dile Red, Root Beer, Scary Black Cherry, Scary Blackberry, Sharkleberry Fin, Slammin' Strawberry-Kiwi, Soarin' Strawberry-Lemonade, Strawberry, Strawberry Falls Punch, Strawberry Split, Strawberry-Raspberry, Sunshine Punch, Surfin' Berry Punch, Tangerine, Tropical Punch, Watermelon-Cherry, Shaking Starfruit
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Kool-Aid Twists Mountain Dew
Kool-Aid Ice Cream Bars
Kool-Aid Singles
Kool-Aid Bursts
Kool-Aid Jammers
Kool-Aid Fun Fizz
Kool-Aid Pop 'n Drop
Kool-Aid is also used by many as artificial dye for hair coloring and tie dying.

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Drinking the Kool-Aid refers to the Jonestown Massacre; the phrase suggests that one has mindlessly adopted the dogma of a group or leader without fully understanding the ramifications or implications.[citation needed] The poison at Jonestown, however, was prepared not with Kool-Aid but a similar product, Flavor Aid.[9]
The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test is a work of literary journalism by Tom Wolfe depicting the life of Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters. The book's title is a reference to an acid test in Watts, California where the Pranksters spiked a batch of Kool-Aid with the psychedelic drug LSD in the 1960s.[citation needed]
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^ The History of Kool-Aid and Edwin Perkins.
^ "History of Kool-Aid". Hastings Museum of Culture and History. Retrieved 2008-05-16.
^ The History of Kool-Aid and Edwin Perkins
^ Kool-Aid Days
^ Grosvenor, Charles R, Jr. (1995). "Food of the Eighties". In the 80s. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
^ "The History of Kool-Aid". Hastings Museum of Natural & Cultural History. 2008. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
^ "Kool-Aid Powdered".
^ a b Shaw, Scott (October 8, 2006). "Kool-Aid Komics". Oddball Comics. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
^ Jonestown Suicide
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KoolSpace at KraftFoods.com
History of Kool-Aid from a museum in Hastings, Nebraska
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« Reply #744 on: November 21, 2010, 12:02:15 AM »

Velveeta

Velveeta Cheese

Other names   KRAFT Cheddar
Country of origin   United States
Region, town   Monroe, New York
Source of milk   Cow
Pasteurised   Yes
Texture   soft, creamy
Fat content   21%
Protein content   18%

A bacon cheeseburger with melted Velveeta
Velveeta is the brand name of a processed cheese product first made in 1918 by Swiss immigrant Emil Frey of the Monroe Cheese Company in Monroe, New York. In 1923, The Velveeta Cheese Company was incorporated as a separate company, and was sold to Kraft Foods in 1927. The product was advertised for its nutrition.[1] Velveeta is labeled in the United States as a "Pasteurized Prepared Cheese Product" (see processed cheese).

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Velveeta is currently sold in the United States, Canada, Hong Kong, Philippines, and South Korea. At one time it was also sold in the United Kingdom and in Germany (as "Velveta")[2]. A similar product is sold in Australia as "KRAFT Cheddar".

For a time during the 1980s, Velveeta used the advertising jingle, "Colby, Swiss and Cheddar, blended all together" in its U.S. television commercials [3] to explain its taste and texture.

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In 2002, the FDA issued a Warning Letter to Kraft that Velveeta was being sold with packaging that described it as a "Pasteurized Process Cheese Spread,"[4] which the FDA claimed was misbranded because the product declared milk protein concentrate (MPC) in its ingredients listing. Velveeta is now sold in the U.S. as a "Pasteurized Prepared Cheese Product,"[5] a term for which the FDA does not maintain a standard of identity, and which therefore may contain MPC.

As is the case with most processed cheeses, the manufacturer recommends Velveeta be refrigerated after opening.

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Food industry
Processed cheese
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^ Wyman, Carolyn Better than Homemade:Amazing Food that Changed the Way We Eat Quirk Books 2004
^ "Ciao! price comparison site". Retrieved 2010-04-04.
^ "Velveeta and Stove Top Plugs December 1984". Retrieved 2009-02-02.
^ WARNING LETTER CHI-6-03, U.S. Food and Drug Administration to Kraft Foods North America, Inc. 18 December 2002. Accessed 9 February 2010.
^ "What Is 'Real Kraft Cheese'?", Chicago Business, February 5, 2007. Accessed 3 February 2008.
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Kraft's Velveeta page
Kraft Cheddar (Australia).
Photo News article on cheese heritage of Monroe, NY - Velveeta's birthplace
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Cadbury Adams
and other gum   
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Alpen Gold ·  Baker's Chocolate ·  Côte d'Or ·  Daim ·  Freia · Jet-Puffed ·  Kvikk Lunsj · Lacta ·  Marabou ·  Milka ·  Prince Polo · Terry's ·  Toblerone · Trakinas

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A1 Steak Sauce ·  Bonox ·  Bull's-Eye Barbecue Sauce ·  Grey Poupon ·  Kraft Mayo ·  Miracle Whip ·  Vegemite

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1In the United States, these products are marketed by The Hershey Company (but made by Kraft's Cadbury subsidiary) under a prior licensing agreement.
2This brand is owned by Rudolf Wild GmbH and manufactured under license by Kraft Foods only in the United States, Canada, and Greenland.
Ticker: NYSE: KFT  · Kraft Foods Corporate  · Kraft Media Center
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« Reply #745 on: November 21, 2010, 12:05:28 AM »

For the Sex Pistols album, see Flogging a Dead Horse (album).

Man sitting on a dead horse, taken between 1876 and 1884
Flogging a dead horse (alternatively beating a dead horse in some parts of the Anglophone world) is an idiom that means a particular request or line of conversation is already foreclosed or otherwise resolved, and any attempt to continue it is futile; or that to continue in any endeavour (physical, mental, etc.) is a waste of time as the outcome is already decided.

The first recorded use of the expression with its modern meaning is by British politician and orator John Bright, referring to the Reform Bill of 1867, which called for more democratic representation in Parliament, an issue about which Parliament was singularly apathetic. Trying to rouse Parliament from its apathy on the issue, he said in a speech, would be like trying to flog a dead horse to make it pull a load. The Oxford English Dictionary cites The Globe, 1872, as the earliest verifiable use of flogging a dead horse, where someone is said to have "rehearsed that [...] lively operation known as flogging a dead horse".[1]

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Some scholars claim that the phrase originated in 17th-century slang, where a "dead horse" was work that was paid for in advance, e.g. "His land 'twas sold to pay his debts; All went that way, for a dead horse, as one would say."[2] This attribution confuses "flogging a dead horse" with an entirely different phrase: "to work (for) the dead horse". This phrase was slang for "work charged before it is executed". This use of 'dead horse' to refer to pay that was issued before the work was done was an allusion to using one's money to buy a useless thing (metaphorically, "a dead horse"). Most men paid in advance apparently either wasted the money on drink or other such vices, or used it to pay outstanding debts.

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A comparable expression for useless labour is "thrice to slay the slain", a quotation from John Dryden, in Alexander's Feast, stanza iv. Dryden drew his inspiration from Sophocles' Antigone in which the blind seer Tiresias is led onstage by a boy, and declaims, "Nay, allow the claim of the dead; stab not the fallen; what prowess is it to slay the slain anew?"[3] The trope was used in Latin, too: in Libanius' funeral oration for the Emperor Julian, he declares of a scoundrel, "Of the three who had enriched themselves through murders, the first had gone over the whole world, accusing people falsely, and owed ten thousand deaths to both Europe and Asia; so that all who knew the fellow were sorry that it was not possible to slay the slain, and to do so thrice over, and yet oftener."[4] The expression was used in "literary" contexts, as when Edward Young mused:

While snarlers strive with proud but fruitless pain
To wound immortals, or to slay the slain.

In the heated atmosphere of literary journalism, the phrase was often quoted to show the writer's knowledge. In Punch for May 1861, a broad satire on the heated controversies caused by the publication of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species, which was defended by Thomas Henry Huxley, concluded as follows.

To twice slay the slain,
By dint of the Brain,
(Thus Huxley concludes his review)
Is but labour in vain,
Unproductive of gain,
And so I shall bid you 'Adieu'!

—"Monkeyana" from Punch, May 1861[5]
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^ 1872 The Globe, 1 Aug 1872
^ Nicker Nicked in Harl. Misc. (Park) II. 110 (1668)
^ on-line text
^ on-line text.
^ "Monkeyana", from Punch, May 1861
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« Reply #746 on: November 21, 2010, 12:11:27 AM »

Barking dog reaction

The "Barking Dog" is an exothermic chemical reaction that results from the ignition of a mixture of carbon disulfide and nitric oxide [1].

It has been known for centuries; in 1853, Justus von Liebig was using the bright blue flash and the distinctive ‘woof’ sound of the demonstration to enthrall his students.

In simple terms, the ‘Barking Dog’ reaction is a combustion process, in which a fuel (carbon disulfide, CS2) reacts with an oxidiser (nitric oxide (NO) or nitrous oxide (N2O)), producing heat and elemental sulfur. The flame front in the reaction is a zone of very hot, luminous gas, produced by the reactants decomposing.

External links

University of Leeds Barking Dog site
Page linking to a recorded lecture on the reaction
Elementary Productions: Small scale Barking Dog reaction @ youtube
Barking Dog Reaction How to Do the Barking Dog Chemistry Demonstration
References

^ Taming the Barking Dog Seabourne, Ché Royce; Maxwell, George; Wallace, James. J. Chem. Educ. 2006 83 751. Link

It does not make any sense.

Divine knowledge do not confuse any body!
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« Reply #747 on: November 21, 2010, 12:14:24 AM »

Venu, I have no doubt that your deluded "devotees" think you are God.  The above tripe doesn't convince us of anything.  You are no more God than I am.  Get it through your head, WE DON'T, AND NEVER WILL, ACCEPT YOUR FALSE TEACHINGS.  

God in human form is to be identified from His divine knowledge nothing else.

The present divine work of Universal Spirituality is exactly coinciding with the prophecy of  Nostradamus in every point. The prophecy is not based on the astrology, but it is based on the intuition given by the grace of God. The scripture “Bhavishya Puranam” of sage Vyasa was also such a divine prophecy.

 Nostradamus was an astrologer and also was a great devotee of God. As an astrologer he was predicting the future of individuals based on their horoscopes because the individuals have the times of their births. But for the world, no horoscope can be prepared because no body knows the birth time of earth or world. Therefore, the prophecy of the world is always from God and can never go wrong unlike the prediction of the horoscope of an individual based on astrology. Therefore, the prophecy became exactly correct in every point. The merit in this prophecy is that all the signs of the Genius were fully related to the knowledge of the Genius and not the physical signs, which may exist in several human beings.
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« Reply #748 on: November 21, 2010, 12:17:28 AM »

Zebroid

A zorse in an 1899 photograph from J.C. Ewart's The Penycuik Experiments. "Romulus: one year old."
Scientific classification
Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Chordata
Class:   Mammalia
Order:   Perissodactyla
Family:   Equidae
Genus:   Equus
A zebroid (also zebra mule and zebrule) is the offspring of any cross between a zebra and any other equine: essentially, a zebra hybrid. In most cases, the sire is a zebra stallion. Offspring of a donkey sire and zebra mare, called a zebra hinny, or donkra, do exist but are rare. Zebroids have been bred since the 19th century. The extinct quagga was also crossed with horses and donkeys. Charles Darwin noted several zebra hybrids in his works.

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Zebroid is the generic name for all zebra hybrids. The different hybrids are generally named using the portmanteau convention of sire's name + dam's name. There is generally no distinction made as to which zebra species is used. Many times when zebras are crossbred, they develop some form of dwarfism. Breeding of different branches of the equine family, which does not occur in the wild, generally results in infertile offspring. The combination of sire and dam also affects the offspring.

A zorse is the offspring of a male zebra and a female horse. This cross is also called a zebrula, zebrule, zebra mule or golden zebra. The rarer reverse pairing is sometimes called a horbra, hebra, zebrinny or zebret. Like most other animal hybrids, the zorse is sterile.[1]

A zony is the offspring of a zebra stallion and a pony mare. Medium-sized pony mares are preferred to produce riding zonies, but zebras have been crossed with smaller pony breeds such as the Shetland, resulting in so-called "Zetlands".[2]


A zebra/donkey hybrid
A zonkey is a cross between a zebra and a donkey. "Zonkey" is not the technically correct name for such a cross. The most commonly accepted terms are zebonkey (or zebronkey), zebrinny, zebrula, zebrass, and zedonk (or zeedonk). Another name that is sometimes used is "zebadonk". Donkeys are closely related to zebras and both animals belong to the horse family. Zonkeys are very rare.[3] . In South Africa, they occur where zebras and donkeys are found in proximity to each other. Like mules, however, they are generally genetically unable to breed, due to an odd number of chromosomes disrupting meiosis.

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Donkeys and wild equids have different numbers of chromosomes. A donkey has 62 chromosomes; the zebra has between 32 and 46 (depending on species). In spite of this difference, viable hybrids are possible, provided the gene combination in the hybrid allows for embryonic development to birth. A hybrid has a number of chromosomes somewhere in between. The chromosome difference makes female hybrids poorly fertile and male hybrids generally sterile due to a phenomenon called Haldane's Rule. The difference in chromosome number is most likely due to horses having two longer chromosomes that contain similar gene content to four zebra chromosomes.[4] Horses have 64 chromosomes, while most zebroids end up with 54 chromosomes.

Common wisdom states that hybrids only occur when the zebra is the sire, but the Barbados hybrid demonstrates otherwise. Two other known zebra hinnies have been foaled, but did not survive to adulthood. The rarity of zebra hinnies indicates the smaller number of chromosomes must generally be on the male side if a viable hybrid is to be produced. Before this comes into account, a successful mating needs to be accomplished in the first place. As courtship in horses involves the mare kicking at the stallion's head for some time before allowing him to mount, and as this behavior is stronger in wild equids than in domestic horses, it is difficult enough to get a horse stallion to mate and not be put off by the rough behavior of the non-horse mare.

Zonkeys are interspecific hybrids bred by mating two species from within the same genus. The offspring have traits and characteristics of both parents. Zonkeys vary considerably depending on how the genes from each parent are expressed and how they interact.

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A zorse
Zebroids physically resemble their nonzebra parent, but are striped like a zebra. The stripes generally do not cover the whole body, and might be confined to the legs or spread onto parts of the body or neck. If the nonzebra parent was patterned (such as a roan, Appaloosa, Pinto horse, paint, piebald, or skewbald), this pattern might be passed down to the zebroid, in which case the stripes are usually confined to nonwhite areas. The alternative name golden zebra relates to the interaction of zebra striping and a horse's bay or chestnut colour to give a zebra-like black-on-bay or black-on-chestnut pattern that superficially resembles the quagga. In zebra-ass hybrids, there is usually a dorsal (back) stripe and a ventral (belly) stripe.

Zorses combine the zebra striping overlaid on colored areas of the hybrid's coat. Zorses are most often bred using solid color horses. If the horse parent is piebald (black and white) or skewbald (other color and white) (these are known in the United States as paint/pinto), the zorse may inherit the dominant depigmentation genes for white patches, it is understood that tobiano (the most common white modifier found in the horse) directly interacts with the zorse coat to give the white markings. Only the nondepigmented areas will have zebra striping, resulting in a zorse with white patches and striped patches. This effect is seen in the zebroid Eclyse (a hebra rather than a zorse) born in Stukenbrock, Germany in 2007 to a zebra mare called Eclipse and a stallion called Ulysses.

Zebroids are preferred over zebra for practical uses, such as riding, because the zebra has a different body shape from a horse or donkey, and consequently it is difficult to find tack to fit a zebra. However, a zebroid is usually more inclined to be temperamental than a purebred horse and can be difficult to handle. Zebras, being wild animals, and not domesticated like horses and donkeys, pass on their wild animal traits to their offspring. Zebras, while not usually very large, are extremely strong and aggressive. Similarly, zorses have a strong temperament and can be aggressive.

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Zebra-horse hybrid foal with quagga-like markings, Walter Rothschild Zoological Museum, Tring, England.
In 1815, Lord Morton mated a quagga stallion to a chestnut Arabian mare. The result was a female hybrid which resembled both parents. This provoked the interest of Cossar Ewart, Professor of Natural History at Edinburgh (1882–1927) and a keen geneticist. Ewart crossed a zebra stallion with pony mares to investigate the theory of telegony, or paternal impression. In Origin of Species (1859), Charles Darwin mentioned four coloured drawings of hybrids between the ass and zebra. He also wrote "In Lord Morton's famous hybrid from a chestnut mare and male quagga, the hybrid, and even the pure offspring subsequently produced from the mare by a black Arabian sire, were much more plainly barred across the legs than is even the pure quagga." In his book The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, Darwin described a hybrid ass-zebra specimen in the British Museum as being dappled on its flanks. He also mentioned a "triple hybrid, from a bay mare, by a hybrid from a male ass and female zebra" displayed at London Zoo. This would have required the zebroid sire to be fertile.

During the South African War, the Boers crossed the Chapman's zebra with the pony, to produce an animal for transport work, chiefly for hauling guns. A specimen was captured by British forces and presented to King Edward VII by Lord Kitchener, and was photographed by W S Berridge.[5] Zebras are resistant to sleeping sickness, whereas purebred horses and ponies are not, and it was hoped that the zebra mules would inherit this resistance.

Grevy's zebra has been crossed with the Somali ass in the early 20th century.

Zorses were bred by the US Government and reported in Genetics in Relation to Agriculture by E. B. Babcock and R. E. Clausen (early 20th century), in an attempt to investigate inheritance and telegony. The experiments were also reported in The Science of Life by H G Wells, J Huxley and G P Wells (c. 1929).

The 1970s continued the interest in zebra crosses. A New York Times article from 16 June 1973 mentioned the birth of a cross between a zebra and a donkey at the Jerusalem Zoo. They called it a "hamzab." In the 1970s, the Colchester Zoo in England bred zedonks, at first by accident and later to create a disease-resistant riding and draft animal. The experiment was discontinued when zoos became more conservation-minded. A number of hybrids were kept at the zoo after this; the last died in 2009.[6] One adult and a foal remain at the tourist attraction of Groombridge Place [7] near Tonbridge in Kent.

2000s

Today, various zebroids are bred as riding and draft animals, and as curiosities in circuses and smaller zoos. A zorse (more accurately a zony) was born at Eden Ostrich World, Cumbria, England in 2001 after a zebra was left in a field with a Shetland pony. It was referred to as a Zetland. This was the inspiration for the 2003 'Song for the Zorse' by London band The Coronets. According to local lore, brown zorses have been spotted in the foothills of the Appalachians in and around Charlottesville, Virginia.[citation needed] Usually, a zebra stallion is paired with a horse mare or ass mare, but in 2005, a Burchell's zebra named Allison produced a zonkey called Alex sired by a donkey at Highland plantation in the parish of Saint Thomas, Barbados. Alex, born 21 April 2005, is apparently the first zonkey in Barbados.[8] In 2007, a stallion, Ulysses, and a zebra mare, Eclipse, produced a zebroid named Eclyse, displaying an unusually patchy color coating.[9][10] The Wild Animal Safari in Springfield, MO has several zedonks as of March 31, 2010.[citation needed] In July 2010, a zedonk was born at the Chestatee Wildlife Preserve in Dahlonega, Georgia.[11] Zorses are bred in Africa and used for trekking on Mount Kenya;[12] the zebra parent gives resistance to the nagana pest disease.

Zorses have appeared in several TV shows and movies. In the Viva La Bam episode Groundhogs Day in the final race, Brandon Dicamillo's sled is a zorse. It was colored pink, blue, purple and red and on the 'uncommentary' on the DVD seasons of 'Viva La Bam', Tim Glomb says "If you send me a list of all the episodes where the zorse is I'll give you a dollar". Also, the 2007 movie I'm Reed Fish features a zorse named Zabrina. In the movie Racing Stripes, an animated zorse appears in the alternate ending. It is the son of Stripes (a zebra) and Sandy, a grey Arabian mare. Zorses have also appeared in books. They are briefly mentioned several times in George R.R. Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire series of fantasy novels. Sutton Coleman wrote a sonnet about zorses and published it in his 2007 book, "Ligers, Tigons, and Zorses, Oh My!" In Roald Dahl's book Going Solo, he and several other characters speculate on how nice it would be to own a zorse, although they admit it would be difficult to train.

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« Reply #749 on: November 21, 2010, 12:21:17 AM »

   
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Glass

This article is about the material. For other uses, see Glass (disambiguation).

Moldavite, a natural glass formed by meteorite impact, from Besednice, Bohemia

Roman Cage Cup from the 4th century A.D.

Oldest mouth-blown window-glass in Sweden (Kosta Glasbruk, 1742). In the middle is the mark from the glassblower's pipe.
Glass is a non-crystalline solid material. Glasses are typically brittle, and often optically transparent.

The most prevalent type of glass, used for centuries in windows and drinking vessels, is soda-lime glass, made of about 75% silica (SiO2) plus Na2O, CaO, and several minor additives. Often, the term glass is used in a restricted sense to refer to this specific use.

In science, however, the term glass is usually defined in a much wider sense, including every solid that possesses a non-crystalline (i.e. amorphous) structure and that exhibits a glass transition when heated towards the liquid state. In this wider sense, glasses can be made of quite different classes of materials: metallic alloys, ionic melts, aqueous solutions, molecular liquids, and polymers. Of these, polymer glasses (acrylic glass, polyethylene terephthalate) are the most important; for many applications (bottles, eyewear) they are a lighter alternative to traditional silica glasses.

Glasses play an essential role in science and industry. Their chemical, physical, and in particular optical properties make them suitable for applications such as flat glass, container glass, optics and optoelectronics material, laboratory equipment, thermal insulator (glass wool), reinforcement materials (glass-reinforced plastic, glass fiber reinforced concrete), and glass art (art glass, studio glass).

Hide Silica glasses

History

Main article: History of glass
The history of creating glass can be traced back to 3500 BCE in Mesopotamia.[1] The term glass developed in the late Roman Empire. It was in the Roman glassmaking center at Trier, now in modern Germany, that the late-Latin term glesum originated, probably from a Germanic word for a transparent, lustrous substance.[2]

Silica


Tetrahedral structural unit of silica (SiO2), the basic building block of common glasses.

The amorphous structure of glassy Silica (SiO2) in two dimensions. No long range order is present, however there is local ordering with respect to the tetrahedral arrangement of Oxygen (O) atoms around the Silicon (Si) atoms.
Silica (the chemical compound SiO2) has a number of distinct crystalline forms: quartz, tridymite, cistobalite, and others (including the high pressure polymorphs Stishovite and Coesite). Nearly all of them involve tetrahedral SiO4 units linked together by shared vertices in different arrangements. Si-O bond lengths vary between the different crystal forms. For example, in α-quartz the bond length is 161 pm, whereas in α-tridymite it ranges from 154–171 pm. The Si-O-Si bond angle also varies from 140° in α-tridymite to 144° in α-quartz to 180° in β-tridymite.

In amorphous silica (fused quartz), the tetrahedra form a network that does not exhibit any long-range order. However, the tetrahedra themselves represent a high degree of local ordering, i.e. every silicon atom is coordinated by 4 oxygen atoms and the nearest neighbour Si-O bond length exhbits only a narrow distribution throughout the structure. The tetrahedra also form a network of ring-like structures which lead to ordering on intermediate length scales (up to approximately 10 Angstroms or so). Under the application of high pressure (approximately 40 GPa) silica glass undergoes a continuous polyamorphic phase transition into an octahedral form, i.e. the Si atoms are surrounded by 6 oxygen atoms instead of four in the ambient pressure tetrahedral glass.[3]

In nature, vitrification of quartz occurs when lightning strikes sand, forming hollow, branching rootlike structures called fulgurite.

Glass ingredients


Quartz sand (silica) is the main raw material in commercial glass production
While fused quartz is used for some special applications, it is not very common due to its elevated glass transition temperature of over 2300 °C. Normally, other substances are added to simplify processing. One is sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), which lowers the glass transition to about 1500 °C. However, the soda makes the glass water soluble, which is usually undesirable, so lime (calcium oxide (CaO), generally obtained from limestone), some magnesium oxide (MgO) and aluminium oxide (Al2O3) are added to provide for a better chemical durability. The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74% silica by weight and is called a soda-lime glass.[4] Soda-lime glasses account for about 90% of manufactured glass.

Most common glass has other ingredients added to change its properties. Lead glass or flint glass is more 'brilliant' because the increased refractive index causes noticeably more "sparkles". Adding barium also increases the refractive index. Thorium oxide gives glass a high refractive index and low dispersion and was formerly used in producing high-quality lenses, but due to its radioactivity has been replaced by lanthanum oxide in modern eye glasses. Large amounts of iron are used in glass that absorbs infrared energy, such as heat absorbing filters for movie projectors, while cerium(IV) oxide can be used for glass that absorbs UV wavelengths.

Borosilicate glasses (e.g. Pyrex) have the main constituents silica and boron oxide. They have very low coefficients of thermal expansion (~5 × 10−6 /°C at 20°C), making them resistant to thermal shock and therefore less subject to thermal stress. They are commonly used for reagent bottles.

Another common glass ingredient is "cullet" (recycled glass). The recycled glass saves on raw materials and energy. However, impurities in the cullet can lead to product and equipment failure.

Finally, fining agents such as sodium sulfate, sodium chloride, or antimony oxide are added to reduce the bubble content in the glass.[4] Glass batch calculation is the method by which the correct raw material mixture is determined to achieve the desired glass composition.

Contemporary glass production


A modern greenhouse in Wisley Garden, England, made from float glass
Main articles: Glass production, Float glass, and Glazier
Following the glass batch preparation and mixing, the raw materials are transported to the furnace. Soda-lime glass for mass production is melted in gas fired units. Smaller scale furnaces for specialty glasses include electric melters, pot furnaces, and day tanks.[4]

After melting, homogenization and refining (removal of bubbles), the glass is formed. Flat glass for windows and similar applications is formed by the float glass process, developed between 1953 and 1957 by Sir Alastair Pilkington and Kenneth Bickerstaff of the UK's Pilkington Brothers, who created a continuous ribbon of glass using a molten tin bath on which the molten glass flows unhindered under the influence of gravity. The top surface of the glass is subjected to nitrogen under pressure to obtain a polished finish.[5] Container glass for common bottles and jars is formed by blowing and pressing methods. Further glass forming techniques are summarized in the table Glass forming techniques.

Once the desired form is obtained, glass is usually annealed for the removal of stresses. Surface treatments, coatings or lamination may follow to improve the chemical durability (glass container coatings, glass container internal treatment), strength (toughened glass, bulletproof glass, windshields), or optical properties (insulated glazing, anti-reflective coating).

Glassmaking in the laboratory


A vitrification experiment for the study of nuclear waste disposal at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
New chemical glass compositions or new treatment techniques can be initially investigated in small-scale laboratory experiments. The raw materials for laboratory-scale glass melts are often different from those used in mass production because the cost factor has a low priority. In the laboratory mostly pure chemicals are used. Care must be taken that the raw materials have not reacted with moisture or other chemicals in the environment (such as alkali oxides and hydroxides, alkaline earth oxides and hydroxides, or boron oxide), or that the impurities are quantified (loss on ignition).[6] Evaporation losses during glass melting should be considered during the selection of the raw materials, e.g., sodium selenite may be preferred over easily evaporating SeO2. Also, more readily reacting raw materials may be preferred over relatively inert ones, such as Al(OH)3 over Al2O3. Usually, the melts are carried out in platinum crucibles to reduce contamination from the crucible material. Glass homogeneity is achieved by homogenizing the raw materials mixture (glass batch), by stirring the melt, and by crushing and re-melting the first melt. The obtained glass is usually annealed to prevent breakage during processing.[6][7]

In order to make glass from materials with poor glass forming tendencies, novel techniques are used to increase cooling rate, or reduce crystal nucleation triggers. Examples of these techniques include aerodynamic levitation (cooling the melt whilst it floats on a gas stream), splat quenching (pressing the melt between two metal anvils) and roller quenching (pouring the melt through rollers).

See also: Optical lens design, Fabrication and testing of optical components

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Network glasses


A compact disc (CD) utilizing chalcogenide glasses for solid-state memory technology.
Some glasses that do not include silica as a major constituent may have physico-chemical properties useful for their application in fibre optics and other specialized technical applications. These include fluoride glasses, aluminosilicates, phosphate glasses, borate glasses, and chalcogenide glasses.

There are three classes of components for oxide glasses: network formers, intermediates, and modifiers. The network formers (silicon, boron, germanium) form a highly cross-linked network of chemical bonds. The intermediates (titanium, aluminium, zirconium, beryllium, magnesium, zinc) can act as both network formers and modifiers, according to the glass composition. The modifiers (calcium, lead, lithium, sodium, potassium) alter the network structure; they are usually present as ions, compensated by nearby non-bridging oxygen atoms, bound by one covalent bond to the glass network and holding one negative charge to compensate for the positive ion nearby. Some elements can play multiple roles; e.g. lead can act both as a network former (Pb4+ replacing Si4+), or as a modifier.

The presence of non-bridging oxygens lowers the relative number of strong bonds in the material and disrupts the network, decreasing the viscosity of the melt and lowering the melting temperature.

The alkaline metal ions are small and mobile; their presence in glass allows a degree of electrical conductivity, especially in molten state or at high temperature. Their mobility however decreases the chemical resistance of the glass, allowing leaching by water and facilitating corrosion. Alkaline earth ions, with their two positive charges and requirement for two non-bridging oxygen ions to compensate for their charge, are much less mobile themselves and also hinder diffusion of other ions, especially the alkalis. The most common commercial glasses contain both alkali and alkaline earth ions (usually sodium and calcium), for easier processing and satisfying corrosion resistance.[8] Corrosion resistance of glass can be achieved by dealkalization, removal of the alkali ions from the glass surface by reaction with e.g. sulfur or fluorine compounds. Presence of alkaline metal ions has also detrimental effect to the loss tangent of the glass, and to its electrical resistance; glasses for electronics (sealing, vacuum tubes, lamps...) have to take this in account.

Addition of lead(II) oxide lowers melting point, lowers viscosity of the melt, and increases refractive index. Lead oxide also facilitates solubility of other metal oxides and therefore is used in colored glasses. The viscosity decrease of lead glass melt is very significant (roughly 100 times in comparison with soda glasses); this allows easier removal of bubbles and working at lower temperatures, hence its frequent use as an additive in vitreous enamels and glass solders. The high ionic radius of the Pb2+ ion renders it highly immobile in the matrix and hinders the movement of other ions; lead glasses therefore have high electrical resistance, about two orders of magnitude higher than soda-lime glass (108.5 vs 106.5 Ohm·cm, DC at 250 °C). For more details, see lead glass.[9]

Addition of fluorine lowers the dielectric constant of glass. Fluorine is highly electronegative and attracts the electrons in the lattice, lowering the polarizability of the material. Such silicon dioxide-fluoride is used in manufacture of integrated circuits as an insulator. High levels of fluorine doping lead to formation of volatile SiF2O and such glass is then thermally unstable. Stable layers were achieved with dielectric constant down to about 3.5–3.7.[10]

Amorphous metals


Samples of amorphous metal
In the past, small batches of amorphous metals with high surface area configurations (ribbons, wires, films, etc.) have been produced through the implementation of extremely rapid rates of cooling. This was initially termed "splat cooling" by doctoral student W. Klement at Caltech, who showed that cooling rates on the order of millions of degrees per second is sufficient to impede the formation of crystals, and the metallic atoms becomes "locked into" a glassy state. Amorphous metal wires have been produced by sputtering molten metal onto a spinning metal disk. More recently a number of alloys have been produced in layers with thickness exceeding 1 millimeter. These are known as bulk metallic glasses (BMG). Liquidmetal Technologies sell a number of titanium-based BMGs. Batches of amorphous steel have also been produced that demonstrate mechanical properties far exceeding those found in conventional steel alloys. [11] [12] [13]

In 2004, NIST researchers presented evidence that an isotropic non-crystalline metallic phase (dubbed "q-glass") could be grown from the melt. This phase is the first phase, or "primary phase," to form in the Al-Fe-Si system during rapid cooling. Interestingly, experimental evidence indicates that this phase forms by a first-order transition. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the q-glass nucleates from the melt as discrete particles, which grow spherically with a uniform growth rate in all directions. The diffraction pattern shows it to be an isotropic glassy phase. Yet there is a nucleation barrier, which implies an interfacial discontinuity (or internal surface) between the glass and the melt. [14]

Electrolytes

Electrolytes or molten salts are mixtures of different ions. In a mixture of three or more ionic species of dissimilar size and shape, crystallization can be so difficult that the liquid can easily be supercooled into a glass. The best studied example is Ca0.4K0.6(NO3)1.4.

Aqueous solutions

Some aqueous solutions can be supercooled into a glassy state, for instance LiCl:RH2O in the composition range 4<R<8.

Molecular liquids

A molecular liquid is composed of molecules that do not form a covalent network but interact only through weak van der Waals forces or through transient hydrogen bonds. Many molecular liquids can be supercooled into a glass; some are excellent glass formers that normally do not crystallize.

A widely known example is sugar glass.

Under extremes of pressure and temperature solids may exhibit large structural and physical changes which can lead to polyamorphic phase transitions.[15] In 2006 Italian scientists created an amorphous phase of carbon dioxide using extreme pressure. The substance was named amorphous carbonia(a-CO2) and exhibits an atomic structure resembling that of silica.[16]

Polymers

Colloidal glasses

Concentrated colloidal suspensions may exhibit a distinct glass transition as function of particle concentration or density. [17]

Glass-ceramics


A high strength glass-ceramic cooktop with negligible thermal expansion.
Glass-ceramic materials share many properties with both non-crystalline glass and crystalline ceramics. They are formed as a glass, and then partially crystallized by heat treatment. For example, the microstructure of whiteware ceramics frequently contains both amorphous and crystalline phases. Crystalline grains are often embedded within a non-crystalline intergranular phase of grain boundaries. When applied to whiteware ceramics, vitreous means the material has an extremely low permeability to liquids, often but not always water, when determined by a specified test regime. [18] [19]

The term mainly refers to a mix of lithium and aluminosilicates which yields an array of materials with interesting thermomechanical properties. The most commercially important of these have the distinction of being impervious to thermal shock. Thus, glass-ceramics have become extremely useful for countertop cooking. The negative thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of the crystalline ceramic phase can be balanced with the positive TEC of the glassy phase. At a certain point (~70% crystalline) the glass-ceramic has a net TEC near zero. This type of glass-ceramic exhibits excellent mechanical properties and can sustain repeated and quick temperature changes up to 1000 °C.[18][19]

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« Reply #750 on: November 21, 2010, 12:39:47 AM »

And now, kittens.

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St. Marina of Antioch


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« Reply #751 on: November 21, 2010, 01:35:20 AM »

Barking dog reaction

The "Barking Dog" is an exothermic chemical reaction that results from the ignition of a mixture of carbon disulfide and nitric oxide [1].

It has been known for centuries; in 1853, Justus von Liebig was using the bright blue flash and the distinctive ‘woof’ sound of the demonstration to enthrall his students.

In simple terms, the ‘Barking Dog’ reaction is a combustion process, in which a fuel (carbon disulfide, CS2) reacts with an oxidiser (nitric oxide (NO) or nitrous oxide (N2O)), producing heat and elemental sulfur. The flame front in the reaction is a zone of very hot, luminous gas, produced by the reactants decomposing.

External links

University of Leeds Barking Dog site
Page linking to a recorded lecture on the reaction
Elementary Productions: Small scale Barking Dog reaction @ youtube
Barking Dog Reaction How to Do the Barking Dog Chemistry Demonstration
References

^ Taming the Barking Dog Seabourne, Ché Royce; Maxwell, George; Wallace, James. J. Chem. Educ. 2006 83 751. Link

It does not make any sense.

Divine knowledge do not confuse any body!
It makes more sense than you do.
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don't even go there!


« Reply #752 on: November 21, 2010, 02:36:38 AM »

LOL, Nicholas! Cheesy

FUN FACTS ABOUT THE 3 STOOGES

Did you know there were actually six "Three Stooges"?  It's true - count 'em!

Moe Howard
Larry Fine
Shemp Howard
Curly Howard
Joe Besser
and last but not least
Curly Joe DeRita

Note that three of them were brothers - Moe, Shemp and Curly - yet at no time did "The Three Stooges" ever consist of the three Howard brothers!

The only two Stooges to stay with the act in all its incarnations were Moe and Larry - who died within a few weeks of each other.

The only Stooge to have the word "Stooge" on his headstone:  Curly Joe DeRita.

(And none of this was cut and pasted from anywhere - I just know it, 'cause I love the Stooges - nyuk nyuk!)
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« Reply #753 on: November 21, 2010, 04:05:32 AM »

While other posters continue to post Wikipedia pages,  Roll Eyes, I ask Venu to explain this passage from the website:

Quote
The only way out of this absurdity is that you must accept that your God appeared in all the lands and in different times in different forms. He preached the same 'true path' to different people in their language and according to their culture.

Was Joseph Smith (founder of the Mormons) God in human form since the Mormons believe that God taught to Native Americans in what is now USA?  What do you have to say about Mormonism, if anything?   Huh  Is Mormonism compatible with your belief system?
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« Reply #754 on: November 21, 2010, 04:52:24 PM »

Yeah, I am such a jerk! He will definitely answer your question... Roll Eyes Or you could spend some quality time and read about Velveeta above.
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Nafpliotis with sunglasses and a cigar.


« Reply #755 on: November 21, 2010, 05:03:45 PM »

Venu has uncanny similarities to Simon Magus...

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon_Magus
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« Reply #756 on: November 21, 2010, 05:10:50 PM »

Come on Rufus you should have copy and pasted that article. What were you thinking!!!?Huh Wink
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« Reply #757 on: November 21, 2010, 05:44:57 PM »

It does not make any sense.

Divine knowledge do not confuse any body!
Everything you say confuses me, thus proving that what you say is not divine knowledge. Thank you for affirming that.

Listen more and speak less. It will benefit you.
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don't even go there!


« Reply #758 on: November 21, 2010, 06:29:27 PM »

Very early on in one of dattaspammi's threads there was speculation that he might be Alfred Persson in disguise.

I don't believe that.  However, one thing they do have in common is that both seem to think Orthodoxy is the same as Roman Catholicism. (Remember Alfred arguing that the Orthodox were wrong to believe St Peter was the first Pope? :rolleyes: Cheesy )

And here dattaswammi is telling the Orthodox to stop doing things that are primarily done by RCs.
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« Reply #759 on: November 21, 2010, 08:11:56 PM »

Spam (food)
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This article is about the foodstuff. For other uses, see Spam (disambiguation).
Spam Spam with cans.jpeg
Spam
Origin
Place of origin    United States
Creator(s)    Hormel Foods Corporation
Dish details
Course served    Main course
Serving temperature    Hot or Cold
Main ingredient(s)    Pork
The Spam-mobile

Spam (officially trademarked as SPAM, an acronym of "Spiced Ham") is a canned precooked meat product made by the Hormel Foods Corporation. The labeled ingredients in the classic variety of Spam are chopped pork shoulder meat with ham meat added, salt, water, modified potato starch as a binder, and sodium nitrite as a preservative. Spam's gelatinous glaze, or aspic, forms from the cooling of meat stock.[1] The product has become part of many jokes and urban legends about mystery meat, which has made it part of pop culture and folklore.[2]

Varieties of Spam vary by region and include Spam Classic, Spam Hot & Spicy, Spam Less Sodium, Spam Lite, Spam Oven Roasted Turkey, Hickory Smoked, and Spam Spread.[3]

Spam sold in North America, South America, and Australia is produced in Austin, Minnesota, (also known as Spam Town USA) and in Fremont, Nebraska. Spam for the UK market is produced in Denmark by Tulip under license from Hormel.[4] Spam is also made in the Philippines and in South Korea.[5] In 2007, the seven billionth can of Spam was sold.[6] On average, 3.8 cans are consumed every second in the United States.[7]
Contents
[hide]

    * 1 Name origin
    * 2 Nutritional data
    * 3 Varieties
    * 4 International usage
          o 4.1 United States and territories
          o 4.2 Europe
          o 4.3 Asia
    * 5 Spam celebrations
    * 6 See also
    * 7 References
    * 8 External links

[edit] Name origin

Introduced on July 5, 1937, the name "Spam" was chosen when the product, whose original name was far less memorable (Hormel Spiced Ham), began to lose market share. The name was chosen from multiple entries in a naming contest. A Hormel official once stated that the original meaning of the name "Spam" was "Shoulder of Pork and Ham".[8] According to writer Marguerite Patten in Spam – The Cookbook, the name was suggested by Kenneth Daigneau, an actor and the brother of a Hormel vice president, who was given a $100 prize for creating the name.[9] At one time and persisting to this day in certain books, the theory behind the nomenclature of Spam was that the name was a portmanteau of "Spiced Meat and Ham".[10] According to the British documentary-reality show "1940's House", when SPAM was offered by the United States to those affected by World War II in the UK, SPAM stood for Specially Processed American Meats. Yesterday's Britain, a popular history published by Reader's Digest in 1998 [p. 140], unpacks SPAM as "Supply Pressed American Meat" and describes it as an imported "wartime food" of the 1940s.

Many jocular backronyms have been devised, such as "Something Posing As Meat", "Specially Processed Artificial Meat", "Stuff, Pork and Ham", "Spare Parts Animal Meat" and "Special Product of Austin Minnesota".[11]

According to Hormel's trademark guidelines, Spam should be spelled with all capital letters and treated as an adjective, as in the phrase "SPAM luncheon meat".
[edit] Nutritional data

Spam is typically sold in cans with a net weight of 340 grams (12 ounces). A 100 gram (3.5 ounce) serving of original Spam provides 310 Calories, 13 grams of protein (26% DV), 3 grams of carbohydrates (1% DV), 27 grams of total fat (41% DV), including 10 grams of saturated fat (49% DV). The cholesterol content of Spam is 70 milligrams (23% DV). A serving also contains 57% of the recommended daily intake of sodium (1369 milligrams). Spam provides the following vitamins and minerals: 0% vitamin A, 1% vitamin C , 1% calcium, 5% iron, 3% magnesium, 9% potassium, 12% zinc, and 5% copper. [12][13]
[edit] Varieties

There are several different flavors of Spam, including:[14]

    * Spam Classic – original flavor
    * Spam Hot & Spicy – with tabasco flavor
    * Spam Less Sodium – "25% less sodium"
    * Spam Lite – "33% less calories and 50% less fat" – made from pork shoulder meat, ham, and mechanically separated chicken
    * Spam Oven Roasted Turkey
    * Spam Hickory Smoke flavor
    * Spam Spread – "if you're a spreader, not a slicer ... just like Spam Classic, but in a spreadable form"
    * Spam with Bacon
    * Spam with Cheese
    * Spam Garlic
    * Spam Golden Honey Grail – a limited-release special flavor made in honor of Monty Python's Spamalot Broadway musical
    * Spam Mild
    * Spam Hot Dogs

In addition to the variety of flavors, Spam is sold in tins smaller than the twelve-ounce standard size. Spam Singles are also available; a single sandwich-sized slice of Spam Classic or Lite, wrapped in plastic instead of a metal container.
[edit] International usage
Spam advertisement on back cover of Time magazine on May 14, 1945.

As of 2003, Spam is sold in 41 countries worldwide.
[edit] United States and territories

In the United States in the aftermath of World War II, a troupe of ex-G.I. women was created by Hormel Foods to promote Spam from coast to coast. The group was known as the Hormel Girls and associated the food with being patriotic. In 1948, two years after the group's conception, the troupe had grown to 60 women with 16 forming an orchestra. The show went on to become a radio program in which the main selling point was Spam. The Hormel Girls were disbanded in 1953.[15] Spam is still quite popular in the United States, but is sometimes associated with economic hardship, due to its relatively low cost.[16]

The residents of the state of Hawaii and the territories of Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) consume the most Spam per capita in the United States. On average, each person on Guam consumes 16 tins of Spam each year and the numbers at least equal this in the CNMI. Guam, Hawaii, and Saipan, the CNMI's principal island, have the only McDonald's restaurants that feature Spam on the menu. In Hawaii, Burger King began serving Spam in 2007 on its menu to compete with the local McDonald's chains.[17][18] In Hawaii, Spam is so popular it is sometimes dubbed "The Hawaiian Steak".[19] One popular Spam dish in Hawaii is Spam musubi, in which cooked Spam is combined with rice and nori seaweed and classified as onigiri.[20]

Spam was introduced into the aforementioned areas, in addition to other islands in the Pacific such as Okinawa and the Philippine Islands, during the U.S. military occupation in World War II. Since fresh meat was difficult to get to the soldiers on the front, World War II saw the largest use of Spam. GIs started eating Spam for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. (Some soldiers referred to Spam as "ham that didn't pass its physical" and "meatloaf without basic training".)[21] Surpluses of Spam from the soldiers' supplies made their way into native diets. Consequently, Spam is a unique part of the history and effects of U.S. influence in the Pacific.[22]

The perception of Spam in Hawaii is very different from that on the mainland. Despite the large number of mainlanders who eat Spam, and the various recipes that have been made from it, Spam, along with most canned food, is often stigmatized on the mainland as "poor people food". In Hawaii, similar canned meat products such as Treet are referred to as "poor people Spam".
Four different types of Spam. Clockwise from top left: Garlic, Oven Roasted Turkey, Hot and Spicy, and the Japanese released version (Spam Less Sodium) of Spam.

In these locales, varieties of Spam unavailable in other markets are sold. These include Honey Spam, Spam with Bacon, and Hot and Spicy Spam.[22]

In the CNMI, lawyers from Hormel have threatened legal action against the local press for running articles decrying the ill-effects of high Spam consumption on the health of the local population.[23][24]

Austin, Minnesota has a restaurant with a menu devoted exclusively to Spam, called "Johnny's SPAMarama Menu".[25]
[edit] Europe

In the United Kingdom spam is often sliced, battered and deep-fried becoming known as 'spam fritters', and is still a popular way of eating Spam today. It gained popularity in the 1940s during World War II, as a consequence of the Lend-Lease Act.

After World War II, Newforge Foods, part of the Fitch Lovell group, were awarded the license to produce the product in the UK (doing so at its Gateacre factory, Liverpool),[26] where it stayed until production switched to the Danish Crown Group (owners of the Tulip Food Company[27]) in 1998, forcing the closure of the Liverpool factory and the loss of 140 jobs.[28] By the early 1970s the name Spam was often misused to describe any tinned meat product containing pork, such as pork luncheon meat.

The image of Spam as a low cost meat product gave rise to the British colloquial term "Spam valley" to describe certain affluent housing areas where residents appear to be wealthy but in reality may be living at poverty levels.
[edit] Asia
Spam is often served with rice in Asia.

In Okinawa, Japan, Spam has become very popular. The product is added into onigiri alongside eggs, used as a staple ingredient in the traditional Okinawan dish chanpurū, and a Spam burger is sold by local fast food chain Jef. [29]

In China, Spam is an increasingly popular food item, and often used in sandwiches. Hormel has had a joint-venture in Shanghai for 16 years which has been highly successful in promoting Spam.[30] In 2005, the Chinese division of Spam was one of the most profitable parts of the Hormel company.[31] This development is due, in part, to the increasing per capita income in Shanghai, coupled with the expansion of their food diet towards more meat.

In Hong Kong, Spam is commonly served with instant noodles and fried eggs, and is a popular item in cha chaan teng. Spam is less popular then Ma Ling Meats, its main competitor in the Hong Kong processed meat market. Although recent controversies surrounding high salt content in Ma Ling products may allow Spam to gain market share.[32]

In the Philippines, Spam is a popular meal, most commonly eaten with fried rice and eggs or as a sandwich with pandesal. It is often eaten for breakfast. During the rescue efforts after the catastrophic typhoon of 2009, Hormel Foods donated over 30,000 pounds of Spam to the Philippines branch of the Red Cross.[33]

In South Korea, Spam (Hangul: 스팸; RR: seupaem) is popular in households as an accompaniment to rice. A local television advertisement claims that it is the most tasty when consumed with white rice and gim (laver seaweed used for some types of handrolls). Spam is also an original ingredient in budae jjigae ("army base stew"), a spicy stew with different types of preserved meat.

Spam and similar meat preserves can be bought in gift sets that may contain nothing but the meat preserve[34] or include other products such as food oil or tuna. When invited to another person's home, guests may present their hosts with such a set, or with other food gifts such as fresh fruit, beverages or tteok.

The surfeit of Spam in both North and South Korea during the Korean War led to the establishment of the Spam kimbap (sushi roll). Due to a scarcity of fish and other traditional kimbap products such as kimchi or fermented cabbage, Spam was added to a rice roll with pickle and cucumber and wrapped in seaweed. Spam was also used by US soldiers in Korea as a means of trading for items, services or information around their bases. To this day, a widespread black market of US military Spam which totals nearly 400,000 cans is found on the Korean black market. In contemporary Seoul, South Korea, Spam is considered a delicacy and can be seen in store windows alongside imported European luxury goods such as wine, exotic mushrooms and Swiss chocolates. Although the contents are the same processed pork product that is sold in the North American market, the packaging is more decorative. Spam is also remarkably popular to a majority of the population, and outranks Coca-Cola and KFC in status as a foodstuff. [35]

In Israel, a kosher variant of Spam, known as Loof (Hebrew: לוף‎, distortion of meat loaf), was produced by Richard Levi, and mostly used as part of field rations by the Israeli Defense Forces. A Glatt kosher version was also produced. It was phased out of field rations during the early 2000s and was finally removed from rations when production ceased in 2009.[36]
[edit] Spam celebrations
Hormel Spam Museum in Austin, Minnesota.

Spam is celebrated in a small local festival in Austin, Minnesota, where Hormel corporate headquarters are located. The event, known as Spam Jam, is a carnival-type celebration which coincides with local Fourth of July festivities, featuring parades and fireworks which often relate to the popular luncheon meat. Austin is also home to the Spam Museum, and the plant that produces Spam for most of North America and Europe. In addition to the annual celebration, there is a national recipe competition where submissions are accepted at the top forty state fairs in the nation.[37]

Hawaii also holds their own version of Spam Jam in Waikiki during the last week of April.

The small town of Shady Cove, Oregon is home to the annual Spam Parade and Festival, celebrating its 8th year in 2007.

The Spam Jam is not to be confused with Spamarama, which is a yearly festival held around April Fool's Day in Austin, Texas. The theme of Spamarama is gentle parody of Spam, rather than straightforward celebration: the event at the heart of the festival is a Spam cook-off that originated as a challenge to produce an appetizing recipe for the meat. The festival includes light sporting activities and musical acts, in addition to the cook-off.[38]
[edit] See also
Foods.jpg    Food portal

    * Meat by-product
    * Potted meat food product
    * Advanced meat recovery methods
    * Pickled Foods

[edit] References

   1. ^ Campbell, Belinda; Clapton, Barbara; Tipton, Catherine (2002). Food Technology. Heinemann. p. 20.
   2. ^ Jones, Lisa (October 2006). Men's Health. Rodale Inc.. p. 132.
   3. ^ "Spam — The Official Spam website". http://www.spam.com/Shop/ProductList.aspx?Category={505D2888-EF00-4C99-BDFE-4AACCF5CE0E6}.
   4. ^ "the Spam timeline section under 1990s "In 1997, Hormel Foods awards Tulip UK with the licence for supplying SPAM to the UK market." Retrieved May 29, 2008". Spam-uk.com. http://www.spam-uk.com/about.asp. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
   5. ^ ""Where is the Spam family of products made?" on spam.com.". http://www.spam.com/whatisspam/. [dead link]
   6. ^ "SPAM Brand History". www.spam.com. http://www.spam.com/about/history/default.aspx. Retrieved October 22, 2009.
   7. ^ Browne, Pat; Browne, Ray Broadus (2001). The guide to United States popular culture. Popular Press. p. 764.
   8. ^ Terry O’Reilly, on The Age of Persuasion on CBC Radio, broadcast 12 January 2009
   9. ^ "Spam.com — Spam Timeline". http://www.spam.com/museum/spam_history.aspx. [dead link]
  10. ^ Acton, Johnny (2006). Origin of Everyday Things. Sterling Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4027-4302-3. , [1]
  11. ^ Boxcar, Ruby Ann (2004). Dear Ruby Ann: Down Home Advice about Lovin', Livin', and the Whole Shebang. Citadel Press. ISBN 978-0-8065-2560-0. , p. 244
  12. ^ "Spam Nutrition Data". http://www.elook.org/nutrition/luncheon-meats/1536.html.
  13. ^ "Nutritional Facts and Analysis for Spam". http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts-C00001-01c20Nk.html.
  14. ^ SPAM > SPAM® Products
  15. ^ Danelle D. Keck, Jill M. Sullivan (2007). ""The Hormel Girls", American Music, Vol. 25, No. 3 (Fall, 2007), pp. 282-311". University of Illinois Press. http://0-www.jstor.org.mercury.concordia.ca/stable/pdfplus/40071663.pdf. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
  16. ^ Martin, Andrew (2008-11-15). ""Spam Turns Serious and Hormel Turns Out More", New York Times, November 14, 2008". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/15/business/15spam.html. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
  17. ^ "Burger King to Serve Spam in Hawaii". http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20070611/ap_on_bi_ge/burger_king_Spam.
  18. ^ Boyd Huppert (May 17, 2007). "Land of 10,000 Stories — Spam in Paradise". KARE11 News. http://www.kare11.com/news/news_article.aspx?storyid=254168.
  19. ^ "The Spam That Isn't Via E-Mail". The New York Times. 2003-04-07. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F04E6DB1338F934A35757C0A9659C8B63. Retrieved 2007-12-28.
  20. ^ "Spam — Hawaiian Spam Musubi". http://whatscookingamerica.net/History/Spam.htm.
  21. ^ American Eats, History Channel Programme
  22. ^ a b Jaymes Song (June 11, 2007). "Burger giants wage Spam war". Toronto: The Star. http://www.thestar.com/News/article/223937.
  23. ^ "Organic smoke (and mirrors)". Saipan Tribune. 2006-07-21. http://www.saipantribune.com/newsstory.aspx?newsID=59528&cat=3. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
  24. ^ "A junkie waiting to happen". Saipan Tribune. 2006-07-14. http://saipantribune.com/newsstory.aspx?cat=3&newsID=59336. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
  25. ^ "Spam Turns Serious and Hormel Turns Out More",, NYTimes, Nov 14, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/15/business/15spam.html?_r=1
  26. ^ The story of Fitch Lovell Ambrose Keevil Phillimore Press 1972 ISBN 978-0-85033-074-8
  27. ^ "Tulip Food Company". english.tulip.dk. http://english.tulip.dk/. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
  28. ^ "Spam firm faces closure after serving its last slice". London: Telegraph.co.uk. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/htmlContent.jhtml?html=/archive/1997/12/24/nspam24.html. Retrieved 2009-06-21. [dead link]
  29. ^ Sieg, Linda (2008-03-12). ""Okinawa cuisine: tofu, Spam and root beer", Reuters News, September 10, 2010". Reuters. http://in.reuters.com/article/idINT22925620080312. Retrieved 2010-09-24.
  30. ^ Minter, Adam (2010-09-10). ""Pawlenty in Shanghai: What's at stake for Minnesota?", MinnPost, September 10, 2010". MinnPost.com. http://www.minnpost.com/stories/2010/09/10/21308/pawlenty_in_shanghai_whats_at_stake_for_minnesota. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
  31. ^ ""USA: Hormel Foods earnings rise for Q4, year", JustFood, November 24, 2005". JustFood.com. 2005-11-24. http://www.just-food.com/news/hormel-foods-earnings-rise-for-q4-year_id83227.aspx. Retrieved 2010-09-24.
  32. ^ ""Lunch meat menace sparks heart warning", The Hong Kong Standard, April, 16, 2010". Beatrice Siu. 2010-04-16. http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?we_cat=11&art_id=97021&sid=27752644&con_type=1&d_str=20100416&fc=7. Retrieved 2010-09-24.
  33. ^ ""Hormel Foods Announces Donation to Philippines", The WebWire, October, 8, 2009". Webwire.com editorial staff. 2009-08-10. http://www.webwire.com/ViewPressRel.asp?aId=105336. Retrieved 2010-09-24.
  34. ^ Image of a ? Spam gift set
  35. ^ Lewis, George H. (2004). "From Minnesota Fat to Seoul Food: Spam in America and the Pacific Rim". The Journal of Popular Culture, volume 34, issue 2. , [2]
  36. ^ "הצדעה ללוף, שייצורו הופסק באחרונה בישראל [Salute for Loof, production of which was recently ceased in Israel]". mouse.co.il. http://www.mouse.co.il/CM.articles_item,1018,209,47535,.aspx. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
  37. ^ Garber, Anne (2010-09-15). ""Wham, bam, thank you Spam", The Vancouver Courrier, September 15, 2010". The Vancouver Courrier. http://www.vancourier.com/travel/Wham+thank+Spam/3528237/story.html. Retrieved 2010-09-25.
  38. ^ "Spamarama website". http://www.Spamarama.org/. Retrieved 2006-08-11.

[edit] External links
   Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Spam

    * The official Spam web site
    * Spam - The Official UK website
    * The Book of Spam
    * More Spam Recipes
    * Gallery of vintage graphic design featuring SPAM
    * Saving 'Spam:' Hormel's Fight to Protect Its Famous Product's Name According to ABC News, Hormel is involved in a multi-million dollar trademark dispute with Spam Arrest, a company which blocks obnoxious emails.
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« Reply #760 on: November 21, 2010, 08:13:23 PM »

Spam (electronic)
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An email box folder littered with spam messages.
Contents
[hide]

    * 1 In different media
          o 1.1 E-mail
          o 1.2 Instant Messaging
          o 1.3 Newsgroup and forum
          o 1.4 Mobile phone
          o 1.5 Online game messaging
          o 1.6 Spam targeting search engines (spamdexing)
          o 1.7 Blog, wiki, and guestbook
          o 1.8 Spam targeting video sharing sites
    * 2 Noncommercial forms
    * 3 Geographical origins
    * 4 History
          o 4.1 Pre-Internet
          o 4.2 Etymology
          o 4.3 History of Internet forms
    * 5 Trademark issues
    * 6 Costs
          o 6.1 General costs
    * 7 In crime
    * 8 Political issues
    * 9 Court cases
          o 9.1 United States
          o 9.2 United Kingdom
          o 9.3 New Zealand
    * 10 Newsgroups
    * 11 See also
    * 12 References
          o 12.1 Notes
          o 12.2 Sources
    * 13 Further reading
    * 14 External links

Spam is the use of electronic messaging systems (including most broadcast media, digital delivery systems) to send unsolicited bulk messages indiscriminately. While the most widely recognized form of spam is e-mail spam, the term is applied to similar abuses in other media: instant messaging spam, Usenet newsgroup spam, Web search engine spam, spam in blogs, wiki spam, online classified ads spam, mobile phone messaging spam, Internet forum spam, junk fax transmissions, social networking spam, television advertising and file sharing network spam.

Spamming remains economically viable because advertisers have no operating costs beyond the management of their mailing lists, and it is difficult to hold senders accountable for their mass mailings. Because the barrier to entry is so low, spammers are numerous, and the volume of unsolicited mail has become very high. The costs, such as lost productivity and fraud, are borne by the public and by Internet service providers, which have been forced to add extra capacity to cope with the deluge. Spamming has been the subject of legislation in many jurisdictions.[1]

People who create electronic spam are called spammers.[2]
[edit] In different media
[edit] E-mail
Main article: E-mail spam

E-mail spam, known as unsolicited bulk Email (UBE), junk mail, or unsolicited commercial email (UCE), is the practice of sending unwanted e-mail messages, frequently with commercial content, in large quantities to an indiscriminate set of recipients. Spam in e-mail started to become a problem when the Internet was opened up to the general public in the mid-1990s. It grew exponentially over the following years, and today composes some 80 to 85% of all the email in the world, by a "conservative estimate".[3] Pressure to make e-mail spam illegal has been successful in some jurisdictions, but less so in others. Spammers take advantage of this fact, and frequently outsource parts of their operations to countries where spamming will not get them into legal trouble.

Increasingly, e-mail spam today is sent via "zombie networks", networks of virus- or worm-infected personal computers in homes and offices around the globe; many modern worms install a backdoor which allows the spammer access to the computer and use it for malicious purposes. This complicates attempts to control the spread of spam, as in many cases the spam doesn't even originate from the spammer. In November 2008 an ISP, McColo, which was providing service to botnet operators, was depeered and spam dropped 50%-75% Internet-wide. At the same time, it is becoming clear that malware authors, spammers, and phishers are learning from each other, and possibly forming various kinds of partnerships.[citation needed]

An industry of e-mail address harvesting is dedicated to collecting email addresses and selling compiled databases.[4] Some of these address harvesting approaches rely on users not reading the fine print of agreements, resulting in them agreeing to send messages indiscriminately to their contacts. This is a common approach in social networking spam such as that generated by the social networking site Quechup.[5]
[edit] Instant Messaging
Main article: Messaging spam

Instant Messaging spam makes use of instant messaging systems. Although less ubiquitous than its e-mail counterpart, according to a report from Ferris Research, 500 million spam IMs were sent in 2003, twice the level of 2002. As instant messaging tends to not be blocked by firewalls, it is an especially useful channel for spammers.
[edit] Newsgroup and forum
Main article: Newsgroup spam

Newsgroup spam is a type of spam where the targets are Usenet newsgroups. Spamming of Usenet newsgroups actually pre-dates e-mail spam. Usenet convention defines spamming as excessive multiple posting, that is, the repeated posting of a message (or substantially similar messages). The prevalence of Usenet spam led to the development of the Breidbart Index as an objective measure of a message's "spamminess".
Main article: Forum spam

Forum spam is the creating of messages that are advertisements or otherwise unwanted on Internet forums. It is generally done by automated spambots. Most forum spam consists of links to external sites, with the dual goals of increasing search engine visibility in highly competitive areas such as weight loss, pharmaceuticals, gambling, pornography, real estate or loans, and generating more traffic for these commercial websites. Some of these links contain code to track the spambot's identity if a sale goes through, when the spammer behind the spambot works on commission.
[edit] Mobile phone
Main article: Mobile phone spam

Mobile phone spam is directed at the text messaging service of a mobile phone. This can be especially irritating to customers not only for the inconvenience but also because of the fee they may be charged per text message received in some markets. The term "SpaSMS" was coined at the adnews website Adland in 2000 to describe spam SMS.
[edit] Online game messaging

Many online games allow players to contact each other via player-to-player messaging, chat rooms, or public discussion areas. What qualifies as spam varies from game to game, but usually this term applies to all forms of message flooding, violating the terms of service contract for the website. This is particularly common in MMORPGs where the spammers are trying to sell game-related "items" for real-world money, chiefly among these items is in-game currency. This kind of spamming is also called Real Money Trading (RMT). In the popular MMORPG World of Warcraft, it is common for spammers to advertise sites that sell gold in multiple methods of spam. They send spam via the in-game private messaging system, via the in-game mailing system, via yelling publicly to everyone in the area and by creating a lot of characters and committing suicide (with hacks) and making a row of bodies resemble a site URL which takes the user to a gold-selling website. All of these spam methods can interfere with the user's gameplay experience by means of scamming or account fraud. This is one reason why spam is discouraged by game developers.
[edit] Spam targeting search engines (spamdexing)
Main article: Spamdexing

Spamdexing (a portmanteau of spamming and indexing) refers to a practice on the World Wide Web of modifying HTML pages to increase the chances of them being placed high on search engine relevancy lists. These sites use "black hat search engine optimization (SEO) techniques" to deliberately manipulate their rank in search engines. Many modern search engines modified their search algorithms to try to exclude web pages utilizing spamdexing tactics. For example, the search bots will detect repeated keywords as spamming by using a grammar analysis. If a website owner is found to have spammed the webpage to falsely increase its page rank, the website may be penalized by search engines.
[edit] Blog, wiki, and guestbook
Main article: Spam in blogs

Blog spam, or "blam" for short, is spamming on weblogs. In 2003, this type of spam took advantage of the open nature of comments in the blogging software Movable Type by repeatedly placing comments to various blog posts that provided nothing more than a link to the spammer's commercial web site.[6] Similar attacks are often performed against wikis and guestbooks, both of which accept user contributions.
[edit] Spam targeting video sharing sites

Video sharing sites, such as YouTube, are now being frequently targeted by spammers. The most common technique involves people (or spambots) posting links to sites, most likely pornographic or dealing with online dating, on the comments section of random videos or people's profiles. Another frequently used technique is using bots to post messages on random users' profiles to a spam account's channel page, along with enticing text and images, usually of a sexually suggestive nature. These pages may include their own or other users' videos, again often suggestive. The main purpose of these accounts is to draw people to their link in the home page section of their profile. YouTube has blocked the posting of such links. In addition, YouTube has implemented a CAPTCHA system that makes rapid posting of repeated comments much more difficult than before, because of abuse in the past by mass-spammers who would flood people's profiles with thousands of repetitive comments.

Yet another kind is actual video spam, giving the uploaded movie a name and description with a popular figure or event which is likely to draw attention, or within the video has a certain image timed to come up as the video's thumbnail image to mislead the viewer. The actual content of the video ends up being totally unrelated, a Rickroll, sometimes offensive, or just features on-screen text of a link to the site being promoted.[7] Others may upload videos presented in an infomercial-like format selling their product which feature actors and paid testimonials, though the promoted product or service is of dubious quality and would likely not pass the scrutiny of a standards and practices department at a television station or cable network.
[edit] Noncommercial forms

E-mail and other forms of spamming have been used for purposes other than advertisements. Many early Usenet spams were religious or political. Serdar Argic, for instance, spammed Usenet with historical revisionist screeds. A number of evangelists have spammed Usenet and e-mail media with preaching messages. A growing number of criminals are also using spam to perpetrate various sorts of fraud,[8] and in some cases have used it to lure people to locations where they have been kidnapped, held for ransom, and even murdered.[9]
[edit] Geographical origins

A 2009 Cisco Systems report lists the origin of spam by country as follows:[10]
Rank    Country    Spam messages per year (in trillions)
1     Brazil    7.7
2     United States    6.6
3     India    3.6
4     South Korea    3.1
5     Turkey    2.6
6     Vietnam    2.5
7     China    2.4
8     Poland    2.4
9     Russia    2.3
10     Argentina    1.5
[edit] History
[edit] Pre-Internet

In the late 19th Century Western Union allowed telegraphic messages on its network to be sent to multiple destinations. The first recorded instance of a mass unsolicited commercial telegram is from May 1864.[11] Up until the Great Depression wealthy North American residents would be deluged with nebulous investment offers. This problem never fully emerged in Europe to the degree that it did in the Americas, because telegraphy was regulated by national post offices in the European region.
[edit] Etymology

According to the Internet Society and other sources, the term spam is derived from the 1970 Spam sketch of the BBC television comedy series "Monty Python's Flying Circus".[12][12] The sketch is set in a cafe where nearly every item on the menu includes Spam canned luncheon meat. As the waiter recites the Spam-filled menu, a chorus of Viking patrons drowns out all conversations with a song repeating "Spam, Spam, Spam, Spam... lovely Spam! wonderful Spam!", hence "Spamming" the dialogue.[13] The excessive amount of Spam mentioned in the sketch is a reference to the preponderance of imported canned meat products in the United Kingdom, particularly corned beef from Argentina, in the years after World War II, as the country struggled to rebuild its agricultural base. Spam captured a large slice of the British market within lower economic classes and became a byword among British schoolboys of the 1960s for low-grade fodder due to its commonality, monotonous taste and cheap price - hence the humour of the Python sketch.

In the 1980s the term was adopted to describe certain abusive users who frequented BBSs and MUDs, who would repeat "Spam" a huge number of times to scroll other users' text off the screen.[14] In early Chat rooms services like PeopleLink and the early days of AOL, they actually flooded the screen with quotes from the Monty Python Spam sketch. With internet connections over phone lines, typically running at 1200 or even 300 baud, it could take an enormous amount of time for a spammy logo, drawn in ASCII art to scroll to completion on a viewer's terminal. Sending an irritating, large, meaningless block of text in this way was called spamming. This was used as a tactic by insiders of a group that wanted to drive newcomers out of the room so the usual conversation could continue. It was also used to prevent members of rival groups from chatting—for instance, Star Wars fans often invaded Star Trek chat rooms, filling the space with blocks of text until the Star Trek fans left.[15] This act, previously called flooding or trashing, came to be known as spamming.[16] The term was soon applied to a large amount of text broadcast by many users.

It later came to be used on Usenet to mean excessive multiple posting—the repeated posting of the same message. The unwanted message would appear in many if not all newsgroups, just as Spam appeared in nearly all the menu items in the Monty Python sketch. The first usage of this sense was by Joel Furr[17] in the aftermath of the ARMM incident of March 31, 1993, in which a piece of experimental software released dozens of recursive messages onto the news.admin.policy newsgroup.[18] This use had also become established—to spam Usenet was flooding newsgroups with junk messages. The word was also attributed to the flood of "Make Money Fast" messages that clogged many newsgroups during the 1990s.[citation needed] In 1998, the New Oxford Dictionary of English, which had previously only defined "spam" in relation to the trademarked food product, added a second definition to its entry for "spam": "Irrelevant or inappropriate messages sent on the Internet to a large number of newsgroups or users."[19]

There are several popular false etymologies of the word "spam". One, promulgated by early spammers Laurence Canter and Martha Siegel, is that "spamming" is what happens when one dumps a can of Spam luncheon meat into a fan blade.[citation needed] Some others are the backronym stupid pointless annoying messages."[citation needed]
[edit] History of Internet forms

The earliest documented spam was a message advertising the availability of a new model of Digital Equipment Corporation computers sent to 393 recipients on ARPANET in 1978, by Gary Thuerk.[17][20][21] The term "spam" for this practice had not yet been applied. Spamming had been practiced as a prank by participants in multi-user dungeon games, to fill their rivals' accounts with unwanted electronic junk.[21] The first known electronic chain letter, titled Make Money Fast, was released in 1988.

The first major commercial spam incident started on March 5, 1994, when a husband and wife team of lawyers, Laurence Canter and Martha Siegel, began using bulk Usenet posting to advertise immigration law services. The incident was commonly termed the "Green Card spam", after the subject line of the postings. Defiant in the face of widespread condemnation, the attorneys claimed their detractors were hypocrites or "zealouts", claimed they had a free speech right to send unwanted commercial messages, and labeled their opponents "anti-commerce radicals." The couple wrote a controversial book entitled How to Make a Fortune on the Information Superhighway.[21]

Later that year a poster operating under the alias Serdar Argic posted antagonistic messages denying the Armenian Genocide to tens of thousands of Usenet discussions that had been searched for the word Turkey. Within a few years, the focus of spamming (and anti-spam efforts) moved chiefly to e-mail, where it remains today.[14] Arguably, the aggressive email spamming by a number of high-profile spammers such as Sanford Wallace of Cyber Promotions in the mid-to-late 1990s contributed to making spam predominantly an email phenomenon in the public mind.[citation needed] By 2009, the majority of spam sent around the world was in the English language; spammers began using automatic translation services to send spam in other languages.[22]
[edit] Trademark issues

Hormel Foods Corporation, the maker of Spam luncheon meat, does not object to the Internet use of the term "spamming". However, they did ask that the capitalized word "Spam" be reserved to refer to their product and trademark.[23] By and large, this request is obeyed in forums which discuss spam. In Hormel Foods v SpamArrest, Hormel attempted to assert its trademark rights against SpamArrest, a software company, from using the mark "spam", since Hormel owns the trademark. In a dilution claim, Hormel argued that Spam Arrest's use of the term "spam" had endangered and damaged "substantial goodwill and good reputation" in connection with its trademarked lunch meat and related products. Hormel also asserts that Spam Arrest's name so closely resembles its luncheon meat that the public might become confused, or might think that Hormel endorses Spam Arrest's products.

Hormel did not prevail. Attorney Derek Newman responded on behalf of Spam Arrest: "Spam has become ubiquitous throughout the world to describe unsolicited commercial e-mail. No company can claim trademark rights on a generic term." Hormel stated on its website: "Ultimately, we are trying to avoid the day when the consuming public asks, 'Why would Hormel Foods name its product after junk email?".[24]

Hormel also made two attempts that were dismissed in 2005 to revoke the marks "SPAMBUSTER"[25] and Spam Cube.[26] Hormel's Corporate Attorney Melanie J. Neumann also sent SpamCop's Julian Haight a letter on August 27, 1999 requesting that he delete an objectionable image (a can of Hormel's Spam luncheon meat product in a trash can), change references to UCE spam to all lower case letters, and confirm his agreement to do so.[27]
[edit] Costs

The European Union's Internal Market Commission estimated in 2001 that "junk e-mail" cost Internet users €10 billion per year worldwide.[28] The California legislature found that spam cost United States organizations alone more than $13 billion in 2007, including lost productivity and the additional equipment, software, and manpower needed to combat the problem.[29] Spam's direct effects include the consumption of computer and network resources, and the cost in human time and attention of dismissing unwanted messages.[30]

In addition, spam has costs stemming from the kinds of spam messages sent, from the ways spammers send them, and from the arms race between spammers and those who try to stop or control spam. In addition, there are the opportunity cost of those who forgo the use of spam-afflicted systems. There are the direct costs, as well as the indirect costs borne by the victims—both those related to the spamming itself, and to other crimes that usually accompany it, such as financial theft, identity theft, data and intellectual property theft, virus and other malware infection, child pornography, fraud, and deceptive marketing.

The cost to providers of search engines is not insignificant: "The secondary consequence of spamming is that search engine indexes are inundated with useless pages, increasing the cost of each processed query".[2] The methods of spammers are likewise costly. Because spamming contravenes the vast majority of ISPs' acceptable-use policies, most spammers have for many years gone to some trouble to conceal the origins of their spam. E-mail, Usenet, and instant-message spam are often sent through insecure proxy servers belonging to unwilling third parties. Spammers frequently use false names, addresses, phone numbers, and other contact information to set up "disposable" accounts at various Internet service providers. In some cases, they have used falsified or stolen credit card numbers to pay for these accounts. This allows them to quickly move from one account to the next as each one is discovered and shut down by the host ISPs.

The costs of spam also include the collateral costs of the struggle between spammers and the administrators and users of the media threatened by spamming. [31] Many users are bothered by spam because it impinges upon the amount of time they spend reading their e-mail. Many also find the content of spam frequently offensive, in that pornography is one of the most frequently advertised products. Spammers send their spam largely indiscriminately, so pornographic ads may show up in a work place e-mail inbox—or a child's, the latter of which is illegal in many jurisdictions. Recently, there has been a noticeable increase in spam advertising websites that contain child pornography.

Some spammers argue that most of these costs could potentially be alleviated by having spammers reimburse ISPs and persons for their material.[citation needed] There are three problems with this logic: first, the rate of reimbursement they could credibly budget is not nearly high enough to pay the direct costs[citation needed], second, the human cost (lost mail, lost time, and lost opportunities) is basically unrecoverable, and third, spammers often use stolen bank accounts and credit cards to finance their operations, and would conceivably do so to pay off any fines imposed.

E-mail spam exemplifies a tragedy of the commons: spammers use resources (both physical and human), without bearing the entire cost of those resources. In fact, spammers commonly do not bear the cost at all. This raises the costs for everyone. In some ways spam is even a potential threat to the entire e-mail system, as operated in the past. Since e-mail is so cheap to send, a tiny number of spammers can saturate the Internet with junk mail. Although only a tiny percentage of their targets are motivated to purchase their products (or fall victim to their scams), the low cost may provide a sufficient conversion rate to keep the spamming alive. Furthermore, even though spam appears not to be economically viable as a way for a reputable company to do business, it suffices for professional spammers to convince a tiny proportion of gullible advertisers that it is viable for those spammers to stay in business. Finally, new spammers go into business every day, and the low costs allow a single spammer to do a lot of harm before finally realizing that the business is not profitable.

Some companies and groups "rank" spammers; spammers who make the news are sometimes referred to by these rankings.[32][33] The secretive nature of spamming operations makes it difficult to determine how proliferated an individual spammer is, thus making the spammer hard to track, block or avoid. Also, spammers may target different networks to different extents, depending on how successful they are at attacking the target. Thus considerable resources are employed to actually measure the amount of spam generated by a single person or group. For example, victims that use common anti-spam hardware, software or services provide opportunities for such tracking. Nevertheless, such rankings should be taken with a grain of salt.
[edit] General costs

In all cases listed above, including both commercial and non-commercial, "spam happens" because of a positive Cost-benefit analysis result if the cost to recipients is excluded as an externality the spammer can avoid paying.

Cost is the combination of

    * Overhead: The costs and overhead of electronic spamming include bandwidth, developing or acquiring an email/wiki/blog spam tool, taking over or acquiring a host/zombie, etc.
    * Transaction cost: The incremental cost of contacting each additional recipient once a method of spamming is constructed, multiplied by the number of recipients. (see CAPTCHA as a method of increasing transaction costs)
    * Risks: Chance and severity of legal and/or public reactions, including damages and punitive damages
    * Damage: Impact on the community and/or communication channels being spammed (see Newsgroup spam)

Benefit is the total expected profit from spam, which may include any combination of the commercial and non-commercial reasons listed above. It is normally linear, based on the incremental benefit of reaching each additional spam recipient, combined with the conversion rate. The conversion rate for botnet-generated spam has recently been measured to be around one in 12,000,000 for pharmaceutical spam and one in 200,000 for infection sites as used by the Storm botnet.[34]

Spam is prevalent on the Internet because the transaction cost of electronic communications is radically less than any alternate form of communication, far outweighing the current potential losses, as seen by the amount of spam currently in existence. Spam continues to spread to new forms of electronic communication as the gain (number of potential recipients) increases to levels where the cost/benefit becomes positive. Spam has most recently evolved to include wikispam and blogspam as the levels of readership increase to levels where the overhead is no longer the dominating factor. According to the above analysis, spam levels will continue to increase until the cost/benefit analysis is balanced[citation needed].
[edit] In crime

Spam can be used to spread computer viruses, trojan horses or other malicious software. The objective may be identity theft, or worse (e.g., advance fee fraud). Some spam attempts to capitalize on human greed whilst other attempts to use the victims' inexperience with computer technology to trick them (e.g., phishing). On May 31, 2007, one of the world's most prolific spammers, Robert Alan Soloway, was arrested by U.S. authorities.[35] Described as one of the top ten spammers in the world, Soloway was charged with 35 criminal counts, including mail fraud, wire fraud, e-mail fraud, aggravated identity theft and money laundering.[35] Prosecutors allege that Soloway used millions of "zombie" computers to distribute spam during 2003.[citation needed] This is the first case in which U.S. prosecutors used identity theft laws to prosecute a spammer for taking over someone else's Internet domain name.[citation needed]
[edit] Political issues

Spamming remains a hot discussion topic. In 2004, the seized Porsche of an indicted spammer was advertised on the Internet;[36] this revealed the extent of the financial rewards available to those who are willing to commit duplicitous acts online. However, some of the possible means used to stop spamming may lead to other side effects, such as increased government control over the Internet, loss of privacy, barriers to free expression, and the commercialization of e-mail.[citation needed]

One of the chief values favored by many long-time Internet users and experts, as well as by many members of the public, is the free exchange of ideas. Many have valued the relative anarchy of the Internet, and bridle at the idea of restrictions placed upon it.[citation needed] A common refrain from spam-fighters is that spamming itself abridges the historical freedom of the Internet, by attempting to force users to carry the costs of material which they would not choose.[citation needed]

An ongoing concern expressed by parties such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the ACLU has to do with so-called "stealth blocking", a term for ISPs employing aggressive spam blocking without their users' knowledge. These groups' concern is that ISPs or technicians seeking to reduce spam-related costs may select tools which (either through error or design) also block non-spam e-mail from sites seen as "spam-friendly". SPEWS is a common target of these criticisms. Few object to the existence of these tools; it is their use in filtering the mail of users who are not informed of their use which draws fire.[citation needed]

Some see spam-blocking tools as a threat to free expression—and laws against spamming as an untoward precedent for regulation or taxation of e-mail and the Internet at large. Even though it is possible in some jurisdictions to treat some spam as unlawful merely by applying existing laws against trespass and conversion, some laws specifically targeting spam have been proposed. In 2004, United States passed the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 which provided ISPs with tools to combat spam. This act allowed Yahoo! to successfully sue Eric Head, reportedly one of the biggest spammers in the world, who settled the lawsuit for several thousand U.S. dollars in June 2004. But the law is criticized by many for not being effective enough. Indeed, the law was supported by some spammers and organizations which support spamming, and opposed by many in the anti-spam community. Examples of effective anti-abuse laws that respect free speech rights include those in the U.S. against unsolicited faxes and phone calls, and those in Australia and a few U.S. states against spam.[citation needed]

In November 2004, Lycos Europe released a screen saver called make LOVE not SPAM which made Distributed Denial of Service attacks on the spammers themselves. It met with a large amount of controversy and the initiative ended in December 2004.[citation needed]

While most countries either outlaw or at least ignore spam, Bulgaria is the first and until now only one to partially legalize it. According to recent changes in the Bulgarian E-Commerce act anyone can send spam to mailboxes, owned by company or organization, as long as there is warning that this may be unsolicited commercial email in the message body. The law contains many other inadequate texts - for example the creation of a nationwide public electronic register of email addresses that do not want to receive spam, something valuable only as source for e-mail address harvesting.

Anti-spam policies may also be a form of disguised censorship, a way to ban access or reference to questioning alternative forums or blogs by an institution. This form of occult censorship is mainly used by private companies when they can not muzzle criticism by legal ways.[37]
[edit] Court cases
See also: E-mail spam legislation by country
[edit] United States

Sanford Wallace and Cyber Promotions were the target of a string of lawsuits, many of which were settled out of court, up through the famous 1998 Earthlink settlement[citation needed]which put Cyber Promotions out of business. Attorney Laurence Canter was disbarred by the Tennessee Supreme Court in 1997 for sending prodigious amounts of spam advertising his immigration law practice. In 2005, Jason Smathers, a former America Online employee, pled guilty to charges of violating the CAN-SPAM Act. In 2003, he sold a list of approximately 93 million AOL subscriber e-mail addresses to Sean Dunaway who, in turn, sold the list to spammers.[38][39]

In 2007, Robert Soloway lost a case in a federal court against the operator of a small Oklahoma-based Internet service provider who accused him of spamming. U.S. Judge Ralph G. Thompson granted a motion by plaintiff Robert Braver for a default judgment and permanent injunction against him. The judgment includes a statutory damages award of $10,075,000 under Oklahoma law.[40]

In June 2007, two men were convicted of eight counts stemming from sending millions of e-mail spam messages that included hardcore pornographic images. Jeffrey A. Kilbride, 41, of Venice, California was sentenced to six years in prison, and James R. Schaffer, 41, of Paradise Valley, Arizona, was sentenced to 63 months. In addition, the two were fined $100,000, ordered to pay $77,500 in restitution to AOL, and ordered to forfeit more than $1.1 million, the amount of illegal proceeds from their spamming operation.[41] The charges included conspiracy, fraud, money laundering, and transportation of obscene materials. The trial, which began on June 5, was the first to include charges under the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, according to a release from the Department of Justice. The specific law that prosecutors used under the CAN-Spam Act was designed to crack down on the transmission of pornography in spam.[42]

In 2005, Scott J. Filary and Donald E. Townsend of Tampa, Florida were sued by Florida Attorney General Charlie Crist for violating the Florida Electronic Mail Communications Act.[43] The two spammers were required to pay $50,000 USD to cover the costs of investigation by the state of Florida, and a $1.1 million penalty if spamming were to continue, the $50,000 was not paid, or the financial statements provided were found to be inaccurate. The spamming operation was successfully shut down.[44]

Edna Fiedler, 44, of Olympia, Washington, on June 25, 2008, pleaded guilty in a Tacoma court and was sentenced to 2 years imprisonment and 5 years of supervised release or probation in an Internet $1 million "Nigerian check scam." She conspired to commit bank, wire and mail fraud, against US citizens, specifically using Internet by having had an accomplice who shipped counterfeit checks and money orders to her from Lagos, Nigeria, last November. Fiedler shipped out $ 609,000 fake check and money orders when arrested and prepared to send additional $ 1.1 million counterfeit materials. Also, the U.S. Postal Service recently intercepted counterfeit checks, lottery tickets and eBay overpayment schemes with a face value of $2.1 billion.[45][46]
[edit] United Kingdom

In the first successful case of its kind, Nigel Roberts from the Channel Islands won £270 against Media Logistics UK who sent junk e-mails to his personal account.[47]

In January 2007, a Sheriff Court in Scotland awarded Mr. Gordon Dick £750 (the then maximum sum which could be awarded in a Small Claim action) plus expenses of £618.66, a total of £1368.66 against Transcom Internet Services Ltd.[48] for breaching anti-spam laws.[49] Transcom had been legally represented at earlier hearings but were not represented at the proof, so Gordon Dick got his decree by default. It is the largest amount awarded in compensation in the United Kingdom since Roberts -v- Media Logistics case in 2005 above, but it is not known if Mr Dick ever received anything. (An image of Media Logistics' cheque is shown on Roberts' website[50] ) Both Roberts and Dick are well known figures in the British Internet industry for other things. Dick is currently Interim Chairman of Nominet UK (the manager of .UK and .CO.UK) while Roberts is CEO of CHANNELISLES.NET (manager of .GG and .JE).

Despite the statutory tort that is created by the Regulations implementing the EC Directive, few other people have followed their example. As the Courts engage in active case management, such cases would probably now be expected to be settled by mediation and payment of nominal damages.
[edit] New Zealand

In October 2008, a vast international internet spam operation run from New Zealand was cited by American authorities as one of the world’s largest, and for a time responsible for up to a third of all unwanted emails. In a statement the US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) named Christchurch’s Lance Atkinson as one of the principals of the operation. New Zealand’s Internal Affairs announced it had lodged a $200,000 claim in the High Court against Atkinson and his brother Shane Atkinson and courier Roland Smits, after raids in Christchurch. This marked the first prosecution since the Unsolicited Electronic Messages Act (UEMA) was passed in September 2007. The FTC said it had received more than three million complaints about spam messages connected to this operation, and estimated that it may be responsible for sending billions of illegal spam messages. The US District Court froze the defendants’ assets to preserve them for consumer redress pending trial.[51] U.S. co-defendant Jody Smith forfeited more than $800,000 and faces up to five years in prison for charges to which he plead guilty.[52]
[edit] Newsgroups

    * news.admin.net-abuse.email

[edit] See also
Crystal Clear app browser.png    Internet portal

    * Address munging (avoidance technique)           
    * Advance fee fraud (Nigerian spam)           
    * Anti-spam techniques
    * Bacn (electronic)
    * E-mail fraud
    * Identity theft
    * Image spam
    * Internet Troll
    * Job scams
    * Junk mail
    * List of spammers
    * Malware
    * Network Abuse Clearinghouse

   

    * Phishing
    * Scam
    * Scad (scam ad)
    * Social networking spam
    * SORBS
    * Spam
    * Spam Lit
    * SpamCop
    * Spamigation
    * Spoetry
    * Sporgery
    * Virus (computer)
    * Vishing

   

History

    * Howard Carmack
    * Make money fast
    * Sanford Wallace
    * Spam King
    * Usenet Death Penalty
    * UUnet

[edit] References
[edit] Notes

   1. ^ The Spamhaus Project - The Definition Of Spam
   2. ^ a b Gyongyi, Zoltan; Garcia-Molina, Hector (2005). "Web spam taxonomy". Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web (AIRWeb), 2005 in The 14th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2005) May 10, (Tue)-14 (Sat), 2005, Nippon Convention Center (Makuhari Messe), Chiba, Japan.. New York, N.Y.: ACM Press. ISBN 1-59593-046-9. http://airweb.cse.lehigh.edu/2005/gyongyi.pdf
   3. ^ "?". maawg.org. http://www.maawg.org/about/MAAWG20072Q_Metrics_Report.pdf.
   4. ^ FileOn List Builder-Extract URL,MetaTags,Email,Phone,Fax from www-Optimized Webcrawler
   5. ^ Saul Hansell Social network launches worldwide spam campaign New York Times, September 13, 2007
   6. ^ The (Evil) Genius of Comment Spammers - Wired Magazine, March 2004
   7. ^ Fabrício Benevenuto, Tiago Rodrigues, Virgílio Almeida, Jussara Almeida and Marcos Gonçalves. Detecting Spammers and Content Promoters in Online Video Social Networks. In ACM SIGIR Conference, Boston, MA, USA, July 2009..
   8. ^ See: Advance fee fraud
   9. ^ SA cops, Interpol probe murder - News24.com, 2004-12-31
  10. ^ Brasil assume a liderança do spam mundial em 2009, diz Cisco (Portuguese)
  11. ^ "Getting the message, at last". The Economist. 2007-12-14. http://www.economist.com/opinion/PrinterFriendly.cfm?story_id=10286400.
  12. ^ a b "RFC 2635 - DON\x27T SPEW A Set of Guidelines for Mass Unsolicited Mailings and Postings (spam*):". http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2635. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
  13. ^ "The Origin of the word 'Spam':". http://www.thegoodword.co.uk/2010/09/20/the-origin-of-the-word-spam/. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
  14. ^ a b Origin of the term "spam" to mean net abuse
  15. ^ The Origins of Spam in Star Trek chat rooms
  16. ^ Spamming? (rec.games.mud) - Google Groups USENET archive, 1990-09-26
  17. ^ a b At 30, Spam Going Nowhere Soon - Interviews with Gary Thuerk and Joel Furr
  18. ^ Darren Waters (31 march 2008). "Spam blights e-mail 15 years on". news.bbc.co.uk. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/7322615.stm. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  19. ^ "Oxford dictionary adds Net terms" on News.com
  20. ^ Reaction to the DEC Spam of 1978
  21. ^ a b c Tom Abate (May 3, 2008). "A very unhappy birthday to spam, age 30". San Francisco Chronicle.
  22. ^ Danchev, Dancho. "Spammers go multilingual, use automatic translation services." ZDNet. July 28, 2009. Retrieved on August 31, 2009.
  23. ^ "?". spam.com. http://www.spam.com/about/internet.aspx. , Official SPAM Website
  24. ^ Hormel Foods v SpamArrest, Motion for Summary Judgment, Redacted Version (PDF)
  25. ^ Hormel Foods Corpn v Antilles Landscape Investments NV (2005) EWHC 13 (Ch)[dead link]
  26. ^ "Hormel Foods Corporation v. Spam Cube, Inc". United States Patent and Trademark Office. http://ttabvue.uspto.gov/ttabvue/v?pno=91171346&pty=OPP. Retrieved 2008-02-12.
  27. ^ Letter from Hormel's Corporate Attorney Melanie J. Neumann to SpamCop's Julian Haight
  28. ^ "Data protection: "Junk" e-mail costs internet users 10 billion a year worldwide - Commission study"
  29. ^ California business and professions code
  30. ^ Spam Cost Calculator: Calculate enterprise spam cost?
  31. ^ Thank the Spammers - William R. James 2003-03-10
  32. ^ Spamhaus' "TOP 10 spam service ISPs"
  33. ^ The 10 Worst ROKSO Spammers
  34. ^ Kanich, C.; C. Kreibich, K. Levchenko, B. Enright, G. Voelker, V. Paxson and S. Savage (2008-10-28). "Spamalytics: An Empirical Analysis of Spam Marketing Conversion" (PDF). Proceedings of Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS). Alexandria, VA, USA. http://www.icsi.berkeley.edu/pubs/networking/2008-ccs-spamalytics.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-05.
  35. ^ a b Alleged 'Seattle Spammer' arrested - CNET News.com
  36. ^ timewarner.com
  37. ^ See for instance the black list of the French wikipedia encyclopedia
  38. ^ U.S. v Jason Smathers and Sean Dunaway, amended complaint, US District Court for the Southern District of New York (2003). Retrieved 7 March 2007, from "?". thesmokinggun.com. http://www.thesmokinggun.com/archive/0623042aol1.html.
  39. ^ Ex-AOL employee pleads guilty in spam case. (2005, February 4). CNN. Retrieved 7 March 2007, from "Ex-AOL employee pleads guilty in spam case". CNN.com. February 5, 2005. http://www.cnn.com/2005/TECH/internet/02/04/aol.spam.plea/. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
  40. ^ Braver v. Newport Internet Marketing Corporation et al. -U.S. District Court - Western District of Oklahoma (Oklahoma City), 2005-02-22
  41. ^ "Two Men Sentenced for Running International Pornographic Spamming Business". United States Department of Justice. October 12, 2007. http://www.usdoj.gov/opa/pr/2007/October/07_crm_813.html. Retrieved 2007-10-25.
  42. ^ Gaudin, Sharon, Two Men Convicted Of Spamming Pornography InformationWeek, June 26, 2007
  43. ^ "Crist Announces First Case Under Florida Anti-Spam Law". Office of the Florida Attorney General. http://myfloridalegal.com/__852562220065EE67.nsf/0/F978639D46005F6585256FD90050AAC9?Open&Highlight=0,spam. Retrieved 2008-02-23.
  44. ^ "Crist: Judgment Ends Duo's Illegal Spam, Internet Operations". Office of the Florida Attorney General. http://myfloridalegal.com/__852562220065EE67.nsf/0/F08DE06CB354A7D7852570CF005912A2?Open&Highlight=0,spam. Retrieved 2008-02-23.
  45. ^ "Woman gets prison for 'Nigerian' scam". upi.com. http://www.upi.com/Top_News/2008/06/26/Woman_gets_prison_for_Nigerian_scam/UPI-73791214521169/.
  46. ^ "Woman Gets Two Years for Aiding Nigerian Internet Check Scam (PC World)". yahoo.com. http://tech.yahoo.com/news/pcworld/147575. [dead link]
  47. ^ Businessman wins e-mail spam case - BBC News, 2005-12-27
  48. ^ Gordon Dick v Transcom Internet Service Ltd.
  49. ^ Article 13-Unsolicited communications
  50. ^ website
  51. ^ Kiwi spam network was 'world's biggest'
  52. ^ Court Orders Australia-based Leader of International Spam Network to Pay $15.15 Million

[edit] Sources

    * Specter, Michael (2007-08-06). "Damn Spam". The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/08/06/070806fa_fact_specter. Retrieved 2007-08-02.

[edit] Further reading

    * Sjouwerman, Stu; Posluns, Jeffrey, "Inside the spam cartel: trade secrets from the dark side", Elsevier/Syngress; 1st edition, November 27, 2004. ISBN 978-1-932266-86-3

[edit] External links
   Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Electronic spam

    * Spamtrackers SpamWiki: a peer-reviewed spam information and analysis resource.
    * Federal Trade Commission page advising people to forward spam e-mail to them
    * Slamming Spamming Resource on Spam
    * Why am I getting all this spam? CDT
    * Cybertelecom:: Federal spam law and policy
    * Reaction to the DEC Spam of 1978 Overview and text of the first known internet email spam.
    * Malware City - The Spam Omelette BitDefender’s weekly report on spam trends and techniques.
    * 1 December 2009: arrest of a major spammer
    * EatSpam.org - This website provides you with disposable e-mail addresses which expire after 15 Minutes. You can read and reply to e-mails that are sent to the temporary e-mail address within the given time frame.


[hide]
v • d • e
Spamming
Protocols    
E-mail
   
Address munging · Bulk email software · Directory Harvest Attack · Joe job · DNSBL · DNSWL · Spambot · Pink contract
Other
   
Autodialer/Robocall · Flyposting · Junk fax · Messaging · Mobile phone · Newsgroup · Telemarketing · VoIP
Anti-spam    
Disposable e-mail address · E-mail authentication · SORBS · SpamCop · Spamhaus · List poisoning · Bayesian spam filtering · Network Abuse Clearinghouse
Spamdexing    
Keyword stuffing · Google bomb · Scraper site · Link farm · Cloaking · Doorway page · URL redirection · Spam blogs · Sping · Forum spam · Blog spam · Social networking spam · Referrer spam
Internet fraud    
Advance-fee fraud · Lottery scam · Make Money Fast · Phishing · Vishing

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spam_(electronic)"
Categories: Spamming | Electronic commerce | Information technology management | Marketing | Cybercrime | Ethically disputed business practices | History of computing | Internet terminology
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« Reply #761 on: November 22, 2010, 01:20:46 AM »

Yeah, I am such a jerk! He will definitely answer your question... Roll Eyes Or you could spend some quality time and read about Velveeta above.

cheese - webcam application for LINUX   Grin
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dattaswami
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« Reply #762 on: November 22, 2010, 02:07:22 AM »


Identification of a true preacher...

The false preacher always propagates false knowledge to exploit the innocent people and get selfish benefits. He says that you will get back the money multiplied by several folds, if you donate a little to God. He collects that little money for his selfish ends posing himself as the representative of God. People are exploited for their ambition of getting back the money in multiple form. The true preacher says that God has nothing to do with such business (naadatte kasyachit…Gita).

He says that God will accept your offering in case it is offered without any aspiration for returns. He explains always the true concept without bothering about the returns in terms of business. Whether anything is given to him or not, he will not be concerned about it and spreads always the true knowledge, which may be liked or not by the people. If he gets something through the propagation of such knowledge, he will feel that it is given by God only through the medium of human beings and expresses his gratefulness to God.
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dattaswami
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« Reply #763 on: November 22, 2010, 02:24:46 AM »

Very early on in one of dattaspammi's threads there was speculation that he might be Alfred Persson in disguise.

I don't believe that.  However, one thing they do have in common is that both seem to think Orthodoxy is the same as Roman Catholicism. (Remember Alfred arguing that the Orthodox were wrong to believe St Peter was the first Pope? :rolleyes: Cheesy )

And here dattaswammi is telling the Orthodox to stop doing things that are primarily done by RCs.

You should not stop your religious activities. It should be done with utmost care. One should go to church, do whatever there, as per your tradition. Go to church, read bible, do social service, pray all things you do. Along with that try to learn divine knowledge also, in such case your love to Jesus will multiply like anything and when you read or do prayer, you will appreciate more about Jesus preachings.

Divine knowledge will not mislead any body. God do not have such intention. GOd's intention is to lead His own children in the right path. Ordinary preachers always err, but GOd in human form never err, because His actions are not based on business or getting some fame and name. God preaches with impartial attitude and without any selfishness.


Generally people are behind God's power only. Their love on God is instrumental only, not real. The demon is quite opposite to God. He is always using the superpower achieved by him in the wrong direction of fulfillment of his ego. He often exhibits the superpower and gets his ego satisfied. The devotee is always in search of superpower to use it for selfish problems. The devotee is like the ONGC (an oil digging company) engineer, who is in search of oil hidden in the soil to use it for the generation of power for the sake of using it in improving the facilities. The devotee appears good since the superpower is not found. Once the devotee finds the superpower and achieves it, he will misuse it like the demon. The devotee is always a hidden demon waiting for the opportunity.

A true devotee is never in search of superpower. He is always in search of God to surrender his power in service of God without any aspiration for the returns. He always feels that the power in him belongs to God and therefore should be surrendered to God in his service. He does not aspire anything in return because you are not aspiring anything in return while repaying the loan to the donor. This is the true attitude of a true devotee. You are not charging the donor for returning the loan given by him.

A true preacher also preaches the same true knowledge. He will say that the rupee given by you to God will not return back to you with interest because you have not invested your energy in the service of God as loan to Him. In fact it is reverse. You have taken the energy from God as loan and in fact you should return it along with interest. At least you can use a little of it for your selfish ends and return back the huge balance to God. At the worst, you should return at least a little to God after using a huge amount for your selfish ends. Can we imagine the fate of the people, who do not return at least a little of the loan taken from God?
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genesisone
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« Reply #764 on: November 22, 2010, 07:53:03 AM »

You should not stop your religious activities. It should be done with utmost care. One should go to church, do whatever there, as per your tradition. Go to church, read bible, do social service, pray all things you do. Along with that try to learn divine knowledge also, in such case your love to Jesus will multiply like anything and when you read or do prayer, you will appreciate more about Jesus preachings.
You demonstrate clearly that a little knowledge is a dangerous thing. Can you say the following - notice carefully that it leaves no room for any other sort of incarnation/manifestation of God for "this generation"? Notice also that it says nothing about His teachings. It is He who saves us, not His teachings.

I believe in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the Only-begotten, Begotten of the Father before all worlds, Light of Light, Very God of Very God, Begotten, not made; of one essence with the Father, by whom all things were made: Who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven, and was incarnate of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary, and was made man; And was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered and was buried; And the third day He rose again, according to the Scriptures; And ascended into heaven, and sitteth at the right hand of the Father; And He shall come again with glory to judge the living and the dead, Whose kingdom shall have no end.

Listen more and speak less. It will benefit you.
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