I definitely see a connection between atheism and western theology. I'm a recent convert into Orthodoxy and I grew up in an extremely Protestant home. I think the issue many people have is that in our Western world we place so much of an emphasis on empirical reasoning and knowledge. And then, combining that with literalist Protestant interpretations which, sorry to offend anyone, are sometimes absurd. Such as a 6,000 year old Earth or literal Creation or rejection of evolution. While on the other hand, Orthodoxy has never really had this problem because our theology is so mystical and philosophical compared to empirical. Anyway, getting back on track, I hope I am not scapegoating, but I think that Protestantism is one of the leading causes of atheism, because everything is taken literally and combining that with western thought that demands reason, we see that it could not have been literal and atheists have a hard time trying to understand how Protestants can believe this against all reason.
On the other hand though, then you have Roman Catholicism, albeit, they are not as silly as some Protestant denominations, but, they devote so much time in trying to find empirical explanations to mysteries about God and miracles and all. One of the atheists in here said somewhere that one of the Church Fathers said that a person cannot think their way into the Church or else they will think their way out, I think that he may have had a point, provided the context is correct. For example, let's admit it, there are some things about God and the universe that we can understand, whether empirical, abstract or philosophical. But, there are certain things that we truly never will be able to understand about God, religion and miracles and everything. I think what the Church Father meant, and it is a relevent issue in today's society, is when we try to find answers to these certain problems. What is going to happen is that we are going to craft together an explanation that seems rational, and we will think our way into the Church because of this, but then, just as we thought of an explanation, we will also think even more and will eventually realize how our original explanation was insubstantial and does not make sense. This is perfectly natural because we are talking about the most confusing, deepest questions in the world here. We are bound to make mistakes. Therefore, we are going to leave the Church because of this.
I think that this is what the Father was talking about. Orthodox Christians on the other hand have the distinction between God's essences and His energies.The parts we can understand are through His energies, but the parts we cannot understand are associated with God's essence. When I converted, this is one of the primary things that drew me towards Orthodoxy. I recognized that no matter what you are, there are some questions we can understand and some that we cannot. And I appreciated the honestly and realized that no worldview is without its own mysteries. I think that one of the reasons why people may reject Orthodoxy is that we, as humans, do not like accepting the things we cannot understand. We like to think that we can come to know and understand everything about our world. But, that usually fails. Because when Christians try to do that, mostly in Catholicism or Protestantism, it only leads to pseudo-science, logical fallacy and delusion, as any atheist would agree. I am no stranger to the atheist literature in today's times, and, to be honest, it is no different than the arguments used all throughout history. However, getting on topic, most of these books are aimed at refuting these absurd logical claims about Christianity that Protestants and Catholics make.
And, on top of this, many of the atheist authors do not honestly understand Christianity, at least Orthodoxy, and usually just attack strawmen or crazy Protestant conventions. It is amazing. As I studied Orthodox theology more, I realized that 60% of the atheistic doubts to Christianity were answered by this. And, I honestly feel bad for my atheist peers because Western Christianity is feeding them absurdity andyou cannot blame them for rjeecting it, the only issue is that they are associating all Christianity with these absurdities. I did not convert until a few months ago, right now I'm fifteen years old. A few years ago I was an atheist leaning towards Buddhist concepts about the world.