"Of all previous attempts to unite Europe, the Europe of Charlemagne was the first example of a perverted Europe...it was the first failure of all the attempts to build a Europe dominated by one people or one empire. The Europe of Charles V, that of Napoleon and that of Hitler, were in fact anti-Europes." - Jacques Le Goff, French medieval historian
"Thus, the old pagan Imperial Roman idea will be restored. The dictator Karl the Tall (Charlemagne) tried to do it over 1200 years ago, renewing Roman paganism and rejecting the Church in order to do so. There came after him, and imitating him, all manner of other tyrants and atheists, Napoleon and Hitler standing out among the more recent of them."http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/sovietu.htm
"One of the first historians in this field writing some eighty years ago, the American Charles Haskins, wrote of the 'renaissance' (= rebirth) of Western Europe in the twelfth century. However, as is clear from what we have written so far, more recent historians have preferred to write of the 'birth' of Western Europe at this time. Moreover, they date it back to the second half of the eleventh century, ultimately tracing the roots of this ideology to Charlemagne.
For instance, the French historian Le Goff describes the characteristics of this birth. He speaks of 'dolorisation', the invention of a religion of suffering and pietism, 'the Jesus cult'. This we can see in the humanistic cult of the crucifixion of a man, human nature, 'Jesus', portrayed as a mere suffering human-being. Beloved of the Western Middle Ages, this cult has recently made its appearance in the film of Mel Gibson. This dwells the whole time on the violence and suffering of the Crucifixion, spending only two minutes on the Resurrection. An Orthodox film would have divided its time into two, half on the Crucifixion, half on the Resurrection, half on the human, half on the divine. The same 'Jesus cult' is beloved of modern-day Evangelicals. The French scholar Le Goff goes on to point out the further developments from this pietism of humanism and from there the exaggerated cult of the Virgin, called Mariolatry."http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/anappeal.htm