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Author Topic: Source of Orthodox Liturgy  (Read 5487 times) Average Rating: 0
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truthstalker
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« on: April 26, 2009, 02:11:59 PM »

Sorry if this is the wrong forum.

Going back to the beginning, what is the source of the original liturgy employed by the Church? The aspostles, I assume, but was there one they left in Tradition to use as a template that was understood to be dated and subject to change? Or how does that work? Was it based originally on something the Jews did and transformed by Christian worshippers? And who writes or changes or adopts or authorizes  liturgies? How free is a bishop or priest or laic to vary from it? Do you use that of St. John Chrystostom, and why or why not? And what has prompted changes, if any?
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« Reply #1 on: April 26, 2009, 02:18:43 PM »

There is no "one" Orthodox Liturgy, there are several.
Some of the Liturgies attributed to the Apostles are the Liturgy of St. Mark (now in disuse in the Eastern Orthodox Curch but some of the prayers of which are still used in other services), the Liturgy of St. James (which has been in continual use on the island of Zakynthos, and which is being increasingly used on the feast of St. James in some Eastern Orthodox Churches as well as other times of the year.
The two main Liturgies the Eastern Orthodox use are the Liturgies of St. John Chrysostom (most of the time) and the Liturgy of St. Basil (during Lent & Holy Weekand on his feast day).
There are also several Western Rite Orthodox Liturgies in use by the ROCOR and Antiochian Western Rite Orthodox Churches.
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« Reply #2 on: April 26, 2009, 02:46:19 PM »

There are also several Western Rite Orthodox Liturgies in use by the ROCOR and Antiochian Western Rite Orthodox Churches.

And apparently Old Caldendrist Western Rite (I have no idea what liturgy they use). There's one, I just discovered, in a town fifteen miles down the road. Who knew?


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« Reply #3 on: April 26, 2009, 03:15:58 PM »

And apparently Old Caldendrist Western Rite (I have no idea what liturgy they use). There's one, I just discovered, in a town fifteen miles down the road. Who knew?

Can you post a link?
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« Reply #4 on: April 26, 2009, 03:46:48 PM »

There is no "one" Orthodox Liturgy, there are several.
Some of the Liturgies attributed to the Apostles are the Liturgy of St. Mark (now in disuse in the Eastern Orthodox Curch...

Quote from: Orthodoxwiki
This liturgy is currently served annually on the feast day of the Apostle Mark at Holy Trinity Monastery (Jordanville, New York) of the (Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia) and at Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology (Brookline, Massachusetts).

And apparently Old Caldendrist Western Rite (I have no idea what liturgy they use).
Are there any other Old Calendarist jurisdictions besides the Holy Synod of Milan which use Western rite? They use the Sarum use of the Roman rite.
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« Reply #5 on: April 26, 2009, 03:47:04 PM »

Going back to the beginning, what is the source of the original liturgy employed by the Church? The apostles, I assume, but was there one they left in Tradition to use as a template that was understood to be dated and subject to change?

I do not yet understand the flexibility in liturgical worship, or the nature of its development.  The only thing that I can tell you is that the oldest liturgy I know of is attributed to St. James, the brother of the Lord, having been written in the first century.  It is still used and has been in continual use in the church of Jerusalem.  As the councils clarified concepts over the centuries such as the Holy Trinity and the Creed, these elements were later added into St. James' liturgy.  But as a whole, if you look at the structure and content, the liturgy is very Jewish.

Oh, and I know that the Didache contains some parts at least of another first century liturgy.  I believe that scholars estimate that it is Alexandrian, but it also comes from a Jewish community.  You might find it interesting.
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« Reply #6 on: April 26, 2009, 04:51:59 PM »

The the Coptic Church we use the Liturgy of St. Cyril during Lent. This Liturgy is actually the Liturgy of St. Mark, which St. Cyril translated from Greek to Coptic. He also moved the intercessions before the Anaphora so that Cathecumens could stay longer. Of course it's also been expanded with things like the Creed, but the core of it is St. Mark's.
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« Reply #7 on: April 26, 2009, 05:17:20 PM »

The the Coptic Church we use the Liturgy of St. Cyril during Lent. This Liturgy is actually the Liturgy of St. Mark, which St. Cyril translated from Greek to Coptic. He also moved the intercessions before the Anaphora so that Cathecumens could stay longer. Of course it's also been expanded with things like the Creed, but the core of it is St. Mark's.

Do you have some more information about these developments? I have the texts of both the Greek and the Coptic versions of St. Mark's Liturgy. However, it is not always clear which represents the older usage. In the Greek version there are some obvious Byzantine influences, but as you pointed out above the Coptic version has also undergone structural changes.

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« Reply #8 on: April 28, 2009, 11:45:15 PM »

Sorry if this is the wrong forum.

Going back to the beginning, what is the source of the original liturgy employed by the Church? The aspostles, I assume, but was there one they left in Tradition to use as a template that was understood to be dated and subject to change? Or how does that work? Was it based originally on something the Jews did and transformed by Christian worshippers? And who writes or changes or adopts or authorizes  liturgies? How free is a bishop or priest or laic to vary from it? Do you use that of St. John Chrystostom, and why or why not? And what has prompted changes, if any?

I read a good book last year that gives an explanation of how the Liturgy evolved form the time of the early church to the present, as well as the meaning of everything in the Liturgy. It's called "Let Us Attend: A Journey Through the Orthodox Divine Liturgy" by Fr. Lawrence Farley. It's probably easy to find on Amazon or something. I got it in my parish kiosk.
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« Reply #9 on: April 29, 2009, 12:15:49 AM »

I've heard good things about this book:



The Orthodox Liturgy: The Development of the Eucharistic Liturgy in the Byzantine Rite

It's written by an Anglican priest, but from what I understand it is written from the Orthodox perspective, being written in collaboration with many Orthodox people that he knew.  It has an academic style, but it is very accessible.
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« Reply #10 on: April 29, 2009, 09:21:39 AM »

Sorry if this is the wrong forum.

Going back to the beginning, what is the source of the original liturgy employed by the Church? The aspostles, I assume, but was there one they left in Tradition to use as a template that was understood to be dated and subject to change? Or how does that work? Was it based originally on something the Jews did and transformed by Christian worshippers? And who writes or changes or adopts or authorizes  liturgies? How free is a bishop or priest or laic to vary from it? Do you use that of St. John Chrystostom, and why or why not? And what has prompted changes, if any?

As St. Basil the Great points out, the Liturgy was a matter of constant use and thus oral tradition moreso than written tradition.  However, it is also tradition that St. James, St. Clement, St. Mark, and others wrote down a template.   St. Hippolytus (ca 200AD) gives a basic "template" (cf. Apostolic tradition 8 ) but then also adds the following:  "The bishop shall offer Eucharist according to all that was said above.   It is not at all necessary that he prays with the exact words given above, as though by an effort of memory giving thanks to God. Each shall pray according to his ability.  If someone is able to pray a lengthy and solemn prayer, that is well. If someone else, in praying, offers a short prayer, this is not to be prevented. The prayer, however, must be orthodox" (Ap.Trad. 9.3).  Likewise, the Liturgy now known as "of St. John Chrysostom" was known as the "Liturgy of the Holy Apostles" prior to the 8th century.  In fact, in our earliest extant codex, Barbarini, there are two columns, one with the Liturgy "of St. Basil" and the other simply with "the Liturgy" which, because of a lack of a title, was considered earlier in composition (as Leontius of Byzantium relates, this liturgy in his day, 6th century, which he called of the Apostles but which is now called of John Chrysostom, was reckoned as the earlier of the two) with a few prayers in it that are given the title a prayer "of St. John Chrysostom" such as amvon prayer.  Some scholars speculate that this is where a name shift took place in that, it was 'the Liturgy of the Apostles with (certain prayers) of St. John Chrysostom' but then simply dropped in the middle and became "of St. John Chrysostom" at the heading of the entire Liturgy.   Several scholars have shown that it is the derivative of the Syriac "Liturgy of the 12 of Apostles" of which we have a copy from the 3rd century as well as the "Apostolic Liturgy" in the Apostolic Constitutions.  Again, there were many varients but the continuity has been demonstrated, and the continuity of the early basic elements of the Anaphora, is demonstrated in Hippolytus.  

{Edit - fixed the "8 ) turns in to Cool when put next to one another" thing. - Cleveland, GM}
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« Reply #11 on: April 29, 2009, 09:25:13 AM »

The the Coptic Church we use the Liturgy of St. Cyril during Lent. This Liturgy is actually the Liturgy of St. Mark, which St. Cyril translated from Greek to Coptic. He also moved the intercessions before the Anaphora so that Cathecumens could stay longer. Of course it's also been expanded with things like the Creed, but the core of it is St. Mark's.

Do you have some more information about these developments? I have the texts of both the Greek and the Coptic versions of St. Mark's Liturgy. However, it is not always clear which represents the older usage. In the Greek version there are some obvious Byzantine influences, but as you pointed out above the Coptic version has also undergone structural changes.



The works already mentioned are good to read on this subject.  If, after this, you are looking to dig "really deep" there are extensive academic works such as The Anaphoras of St Basil and St. James:  An Investigation into their Common Origin by John Fenwick (Orientalia Christiana Analecta 240)
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« Reply #12 on: April 29, 2009, 10:00:51 AM »

The liturgy didn't just appear in the 4th century...think about it - from the first days, there was incredible liturgical diversity in the various growing Christian community.  The uniformity that we see now, for example, in the liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, came later.  You've got East Syrian, West Syrian, Alexandrian, Palestinian, and Constantinopolitan traditions, all coming into contact, mingling with each other.  For example, the anaphora is Antiochian in origin, the hymn "O Only Begotten Son" is ascribed later to the time of Justinian, etc...

So while it would take a book to discuss the development of the liturgy, in short, we can say that the liturgy evolved from several diverse traditions into a relatively uniform liturgy that we know and love today.
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« Reply #13 on: June 02, 2009, 05:07:10 PM »

[And apparently Old Caldendrist Western Rite (I have no idea what liturgy they use). There's one, I just discovered, in a town fifteen miles down the road. Who knew?]

i tried to find it one time ... im not sure its functioning anymore ... i knocked but no one answered
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« Reply #14 on: June 02, 2009, 05:40:55 PM »

A book I have, entitled: "Let Us Attend: A Journey through the Orthodox Divine Liturgy" by Father Lawrence Farley is a good book, in the back it has the liturgies by date and what they included... Kind of showing the evolution of our liturgy...

Liturgy during time of St. Justin Martyr (ca. 150 AD)
  • Bishop greets, "Peace be to all"; people respond, "And to your spirit!"
  • Old Testament Reading; Psalm(s) with refrain; Epistle Reading; Psalm(s) with alleluia; Gospel reading
  • Sermon/Homily
  • Litany & intercessory prayers
  • Kiss of Peace
  • Eucharist/Gifts placed on altar
  • Anaphora
  • Breaking of bread/Consecration, "Holy Things are For the Holy"
  • Communion
  • Dismissal: "Depart in Peace!"
That isn't word for word from his chart/list, I reworded and shortened some things. However that is pretty much what his list of the liturgy during St. Justin Martyr's day was like.

He also goes on to list St. John Chrysostom's liturgy in AD 400, and then the modern liturgy that was finalized in about AD 1300.



We must also keep in mind, that the liturgy talked about by St. Justin Martyr in its form was just 50 years after the death of St. John the Apostle/Theologian/Evangelist.
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« Reply #15 on: June 02, 2009, 07:02:53 PM »

I've heard good things about this book:



The Orthodox Liturgy: The Development of the Eucharistic Liturgy in the Byzantine Rite

It's written by an Anglican priest, but from what I understand it is written from the Orthodox perspective, being written in collaboration with many Orthodox people that he knew.  It has an academic style, but it is very accessible.

Yes, it is a good book.  There is another "Orthodox Worship," the author escapes me now.
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« Reply #16 on: June 02, 2009, 07:36:18 PM »

A question about our liturgy:

Why do we no longer have an Old Testament reading during the liturgy?
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« Reply #17 on: June 02, 2009, 07:37:47 PM »

Yes, it is a good book.  There is another "Orthodox Worship," the author escapes me now.

I bought it and hated it.
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« Reply #18 on: June 02, 2009, 07:38:25 PM »

Why do we no longer have an Old Testament reading during the liturgy?

Antisemitism.
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« Reply #19 on: June 02, 2009, 07:43:17 PM »

Why do we no longer have an Old Testament reading during the liturgy?

Antisemitism.

Nonsense. There are copious OT readings (including psalms) in the anticipatory services (vespers, matins, compline, hours) which are preludes to the Divine Liturgy. The DL is, after all, the commemoration of the life of Christ, the incarnation and revelation of God on earth, the fulfilment and completion of salvation history. The other services are, in a sense, pre-incarnational, therefore the OT is used in them to a great extent.
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« Reply #20 on: June 02, 2009, 07:51:46 PM »

Nonsense.

Sarcasm.
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« Reply #21 on: June 02, 2009, 07:54:39 PM »

Why do we no longer have an Old Testament reading during the liturgy?

Antisemitism.

Nonsense. There are copious OT readings (including psalms) in the anticipatory services (vespers, matins, compline, hours) which are preludes to the Divine Liturgy. The DL is, after all, the commemoration of the life of Christ, the incarnation and revelation of God on earth, the fulfilment and completion of salvation history. The other services are, in a sense, pre-incarnational, therefore the OT is used in them to a great extent.

Yes, I know that, but we do not have an "official" solemn moment when the reader comes forth with the OT and reads therein...do we? Some churches still do this.
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« Reply #22 on: June 02, 2009, 08:12:06 PM »

Yes, it is a good book.  There is another "Orthodox Worship," the author escapes me now.

I bought it and hated it.

Why did you hate it?
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« Reply #23 on: June 03, 2009, 12:00:40 AM »

Why do we no longer have an Old Testament reading during the liturgy?

Antisemitism.

Nonsense. There are copious OT readings (including psalms) in the anticipatory services (vespers, matins, compline, hours) which are preludes to the Divine Liturgy. The DL is, after all, the commemoration of the life of Christ, the incarnation and revelation of God on earth, the fulfilment and completion of salvation history. The other services are, in a sense, pre-incarnational, therefore the OT is used in them to a great extent.

Yes, I know that, but we do not have an "official" solemn moment when the reader comes forth with the OT and reads therein...do we? Some churches still do this.

OT readings in the Divine Liturgy? Only if it is a vesperal liturgy, such as that of Holy Saturday morning, or the Presanctified. There is even the case of the Vespers for the feast of Apostles Peter and Paul, where all three readings are from the NT (epistles of Peter), and not from the OT at all.

Which churches have you come across which have OT readings at the DL (non-vesperal)?
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« Reply #24 on: June 03, 2009, 12:03:47 AM »

I mean other churches, not Orthodox churches. I believe it is actually a very old custom to have an OT reading during the Sunday church service. And surely, in the very beginning, before the Church had the actual New Testament, there would have been OT readings as well as reading various epistles etc? Just a guess.
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« Reply #25 on: June 03, 2009, 03:04:16 AM »

Which churches have you come across which have OT readings at the DL (non-vesperal)?

Isn't that the famous New Skete Monastery?
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« Reply #26 on: June 03, 2009, 04:26:14 AM »

Which churches have you come across which have OT readings at the DL (non-vesperal)?

Isn't that the famous New Skete Monastery?

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« Reply #27 on: June 03, 2009, 04:41:51 AM »

Perhaps some of our resident Catholic friends can confirm this, but isn't the OT read in the Catholic Mass? If so, is this ancient practice? If it is, why aren't OT readings in the DL?

This is something that has bothered me for quite a while, as most Orthodox Christians are quite ignorant about the OT.
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« Reply #28 on: June 03, 2009, 04:45:48 AM »

Perhaps some of our resident Catholic friends can confirm this, but isn't the OT read in the Catholic Mass? If so, is this ancient practice? If it is, why aren't OT readings in the DL?

This is something that has bothered me for quite a while, as most Orthodox Christians are quite ignorant about the OT.

Handmaiden, perhaps you missed this earlier post:

There are copious OT readings (including psalms) in the anticipatory services (vespers, matins, compline, hours) which are preludes to the Divine Liturgy. The DL is, after all, the commemoration of the life of Christ, the incarnation and revelation of God on earth, the fulfilment and completion of salvation history. The other services are, in a sense, pre-incarnational, therefore the OT is used in them to a great extent.
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« Reply #29 on: June 03, 2009, 04:47:20 AM »

This is something that has bothered me for quite a while, as most Orthodox Christians are quite ignorant about the OT.

Unfortunately that's true.
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« Reply #30 on: June 03, 2009, 04:51:21 AM »

Attend more vespers and vigil services, especially of feasts, and you'll learn more about the OT before long.  angel
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« Reply #31 on: June 03, 2009, 07:11:03 AM »

On the readings:
Scripture Readings in Orthodox Worship By Georges Augustin Barrois
http://books.google.com/books?id=leIlIudzv4kC&printsec=frontcover&dq=orthodox+worship#PPA19,M1
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« Reply #32 on: June 03, 2009, 08:07:54 AM »

Why do we no longer have an Old Testament reading during the liturgy?

Antisemitism.

Nonsense. There are copious OT readings (including psalms) in the anticipatory services (vespers, matins, compline, hours) which are preludes to the Divine Liturgy. The DL is, after all, the commemoration of the life of Christ, the incarnation and revelation of God on earth, the fulfilment and completion of salvation history. The other services are, in a sense, pre-incarnational, therefore the OT is used in them to a great extent.

Yes, I know that, but we do not have an "official" solemn moment when the reader comes forth with the OT and reads therein...do we? Some churches still do this.

OT readings in the Divine Liturgy? Only if it is a vesperal liturgy, such as that of Holy Saturday morning, or the Presanctified. There is even the case of the Vespers for the feast of Apostles Peter and Paul, where all three readings are from the NT (epistles of Peter), and not from the OT at all.

Which churches have you come across which have OT readings at the DL (non-vesperal)?

The Divine Liturgy during St. Justin Martyr's lifetime: (about 150 A.D.)
Quote
Liturgy during time of St. Justin Martyr (ca. 150 AD)

Bishop greets, "Peace be to all"; people respond, "And to your spirit!"
Old Testament Reading;
Psalm(s) with refrain
Epistle Reading
Psalm(s) with alleluia
Gospel reading
Sermon/Homily
Litany & intercessory prayers
Kiss of Peace
Eucharist/Gifts placed on altar
Anaphora
Breaking of bread/Consecration, "Holy Things are For the Holy"
Communion
Dismissal: "Depart in Peace!"
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« Reply #33 on: June 03, 2009, 08:53:20 AM »

And apparently Old Caldendrist Western Rite (I have no idea what liturgy they use). There's one, I just discovered, in a town fifteen miles down the road. Who knew?

Can you post a link?

So sorry, didn't see this. Here:

http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/Liturgy/Groups.html

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Liturgy at Mt. St. Macrina Pilgrimage


« Reply #34 on: June 03, 2009, 10:25:42 PM »

St. John Chrysostom tells us there was a reading from the Prophets in his time.

The Ambrosian, Mozarabic, and Chaldean/Assyrian Liturgies have readings from the Prophets.
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« Reply #35 on: June 11, 2009, 12:36:12 AM »

A question about our liturgy:

Why do we no longer have an Old Testament reading during the liturgy?

Some Orthodox churches still have the Old Testament reading as part of the Liturgy. In Orthodox churches in which it is still read, it occurs prior to the Prokeimonon.
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« Reply #36 on: June 11, 2009, 01:05:03 AM »

Perhaps some of our resident Catholic friends can confirm this, but isn't the OT read in the Catholic Mass? If so, is this ancient practice? If it is, why aren't OT readings in the DL?

This is something that has bothered me for quite a while, as most Orthodox Christians are quite ignorant about the OT.

Handmaiden, perhaps you missed this earlier post:

There are copious OT readings (including psalms) in the anticipatory services (vespers, matins, compline, hours) which are preludes to the Divine Liturgy. The DL is, after all, the commemoration of the life of Christ, the incarnation and revelation of God on earth, the fulfilment and completion of salvation history. The other services are, in a sense, pre-incarnational, therefore the OT is used in them to a great extent.

LBK,

While I am aware of these readings in the anticipatory services, most Orthodox parishes either do not have these services, or they are not heavily attended.

As others have pointed out, the OT was at one time commonly read during the DL, and there is space for it in the DL, however most parishes do not include the OT in the weekly DL celebration.

While I understand that we are commemorating the life of Christ, there is much to be learned from the prophesies leading up to his life, and most Orthodox Christians are unaware of them.

Aside from the story of creation, Noah and the Ark, and Jonah and the Wale, few Orthodox Christians know anything about the OT.

I find this quite regrettable and sad.

In XC,

Maureen


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« Reply #37 on: June 11, 2009, 01:21:39 AM »

A question about our liturgy:

Why do we no longer have an Old Testament reading during the liturgy?

Some Orthodox churches still have the Old Testament reading as part of the Liturgy. In Orthodox churches in which it is still read, it occurs prior to the Prokeimonon.

That's nice to know.  In my Church, there are supposed to be Old Testament readings, but it rarely happens.  I've heard it in Coptic churches, though.

By the way, welcome to the forum!  Smiley
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« Reply #38 on: June 11, 2009, 05:14:24 AM »

A question about our liturgy:

Why do we no longer have an Old Testament reading during the liturgy?

Some Orthodox churches still have the Old Testament reading as part of the Liturgy. In Orthodox churches in which it is still read, it occurs prior to the Prokeimonon.

That's nice to know.  In my Church, there are supposed to be Old Testament readings, but it rarely happens.  I've heard it in Coptic churches, though.

Dear Salpy

What a sad news for me Sad. I didn't know that there were so many Armenian churches where the readings from the Old Testament are omitted. In Armenia it is not so. During the Liturgy, all the readings from the Old Testament are read!!! Be sure. I don't say there are not some churches where the priest according to his desire may omit those readings, but this is not something acceptable and generally used in Armenia.
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« Reply #39 on: June 11, 2009, 06:16:28 PM »

Perhaps some of our resident Catholic friends can confirm this, but isn't the OT read in the Catholic Mass? If so, is this ancient practice? If it is, why aren't OT readings in the DL?

This is something that has bothered me for quite a while, as most Orthodox Christians are quite ignorant about the OT.

For the RCC the OT reading was "reinstated" by Vatican II, so, no, it was not read in the tridentine mass, and is a fairly new development.  As for the ignorance of the Orthodox, I find myself preaching on and rereading passages from the OT readings at Vespers the night before or during the week when people were absent.  For example, this past week we had 3 sets of 3 OT readings for Ascension, Sunday afterfeast (Holy Fathers), and Pentecost.  I don't want my parish to be ignorant of the OT!     
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« Reply #40 on: June 11, 2009, 06:33:37 PM »

Perhaps some of our resident Catholic friends can confirm this, but isn't the OT read in the Catholic Mass? If so, is this ancient practice? If it is, why aren't OT readings in the DL?

This is something that has bothered me for quite a while, as most Orthodox Christians are quite ignorant about the OT.

For the RCC the OT reading was "reinstated" by Vatican II, so, no, it was not read in the tridentine mass, and is a fairly new development.  As for the ignorance of the Orthodox, I find myself preaching on and rereading passages from the OT readings at Vespers the night before or during the week when people were absent.  For example, this past week we had 3 sets of 3 OT readings for Ascension, Sunday afterfeast (Holy Fathers), and Pentecost.  I don't want my parish to be ignorant of the OT!     


Thank you for your response Father! I am glad to hear that your parish will not be ignorant of the OT! Smiley

Considering the OT takes up 70% of the Bible, it is important for all of us to be somewhat familiar with it. Smiley
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« Reply #41 on: June 11, 2009, 09:35:47 PM »

In Armenia it is not so. During the Liturgy, all the readings from the Old Testament are read!!!

I'm very glad to hear that!  I can only hope that this practice will again spread into the diaspora.  I'm afraid American Armenians have a short attention span, and I think the priests try to accommodate that.   Smiley
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« Reply #42 on: June 21, 2009, 12:48:29 AM »

A book I have, entitled: "Let Us Attend: A Journey through the Orthodox Divine Liturgy" by Father Lawrence Farley is a good book, in the back it has the liturgies by date and what they included... Kind of showing the evolution of our liturgy...

Liturgy during time of St. Justin Martyr (ca. 150 AD)
  • Bishop greets, "Peace be to all"; people respond, "And to your spirit!"
  • Old Testament Reading; Psalm(s) with refrain; Epistle Reading; Psalm(s) with alleluia; Gospel reading
  • Sermon/Homily
  • Litany & intercessory prayers
  • Kiss of Peace
  • Eucharist/Gifts placed on altar
  • Anaphora
  • Breaking of bread/Consecration, "Holy Things are For the Holy"
  • Communion
  • Dismissal: "Depart in Peace!"
That isn't word for word from his chart/list, I reworded and shortened some things. However that is pretty much what his list of the liturgy during St. Justin Martyr's day was like.

He also goes on to list St. John Chrysostom's liturgy in AD 400, and then the modern liturgy that was finalized in about AD 1300.



We must also keep in mind, that the liturgy talked about by St. Justin Martyr in its form was just 50 years after the death of St. John the Apostle/Theologian/Evangelist.

Thanks for posting this Smiley
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