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ialmisry
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« on: April 13, 2009, 11:50:32 AM »

Lest I be accused of derailing threads, I thought I would open this one on a topic whose very existence has been questioned: Phanariotism.

I've already posted some documents, including a historical source:
having attended seminaries where they are taught phanariotism instead of Orthodoxy.

What is phanariotism?

My guess is that's a sarcasticly dismissing way to say 'loyalty to one's hierarch'. However, clever as an attempt as it was to create a new word...I doubt you'll find it in the next edition of the OED.
No, it means "abolishing other patriarchates so as to administer them more centrally for an non-Christian overlord (child tax, etc.), and impose the culture of the centralized command on them."

Not a new word:
http://www.eie.gr/nhrf/institutes/inr/cvs/cv-tabaki-en.html
Quote
II. 1984 - 1988 : General Infrastructure Programme for Modern Greek Studies: ''The Mourouzis Archive''.
The classification, analysis and publishing of archive material (1177 documents) which covers a period of five centuries (15th-19th centuries) was conducted in collaboration with the ''N. Iorga Institute of History'' (Bucharest). This was intended as a contribution to research into the phenomenon of ''Phanariotism'' and of the complex role of Hellenism of the diaspora in the wider Balkan area (in collaboration with Florin Marinescu and Georgeta Penelea-Filitti).

http://www.h-net.org/~habsweb/sourcetexts/stross8.htm
Quote
Letter of Bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer to Mr. William E. Gladstone [British PM, no?], February 13, 1878
http://www.h-net.org/~habsweb/sourcetexts/stross8.htm
http://www.kokkalisfoundation.gr/multimedia/doc/2007_3/458.doc

I continue with the last link

Quote
After 1453, the Greek exodus to the Romanian countries contributed to the emergence in those hospitable lands of a genuine “Byzantium after Byzantium,” as the most important Romanian historian Nicolae Iorga called it. In the Greek world, the Romanian Principalities were perceived as a haven, an oasis, so much that there was this saying, “Only Paradise is better than Wallachia.”...
The church environment was one of the favourite gateways for Greeks entering the domestic life and culture of mediaeval Romanian society as early as the 16th century. The first edition of the Bible in Greek was printed in Venice in 1687, owing to Romanian prince Serban Cantacuzino. One year later was printed the Bible of Bucharest, translated from Greek into Romanian by a group at head with the Germanos of Nyssa....
Before they came to control political life in the 18th century Romanian Principalities under the Phanariot rule, important Greek families had integrated in the Romanian society, beginning in the 16th century, through the kinship relations they had established. As the time’s chroniclers noted, these families struck roots here. Names such as Catargiu, Ghica, Sturdza, Mourouzi and Cantacuzino were well known in the political arena. Members of these families came to hold significant state positions, several prime ministers, including Apostolos Arsakis or Barbu Catargiu, being of Greek origin. Once settled in the Romanian lands, the Greeks became loyal Romanian citizens, helping their communities to thrive...
The epoch when Hellenism rose to prominence in the Romanian Principalities is that of the Phanariot rulers. A good many of the 31 Phanariot rulers were good administrators and equally scholars or patrons of the arts. The Bucharest library of the first Phanariot ruler in the Principalities, Nicholas Mavrocordato, a scholar of the early Enlightenment, was the largest in South-Eastern Europe, its fame spreading as far as the court of the king of France. The group of scholars rallied in Bucharest round Dimitrios Katartzis – a “Maecenas of Wallachia’s scholars” or a “patriarch of the scholars” as he was dubbed – epitomizes the intellectual ebullience of the epoch.  The Romanian Principalities served as a hub of Hellenic Enlightenment. In their turn, Romanian intellectuals absorbed the beneficial influences of this trend. The Library of the Romanian Academy shelters 2000 manuscripts by Greek scholars in the Romanian space, but such precious documents exist also in the cities of Iasi, Brasov or Sibiu, waiting for Greek and Romanian researchers patiently to bring them into the light...
The Romanian land is where a chapter of the Greek Revolution was written, a chapter as tragical as it was brilliant. It is from here that Alexandros Ypsilantis and the Haeteria Movement began, in 1821, the liberation struggle that would lead, albeit with great sacrifice, to the proclamation of free Greece. A Romanian poet, Grigore Alexandrescu (1810-1885), and Greek national poet Kostis Palamas wrote emotional, touching poems on the heroic episode at Dragasani...
The Greek printing, too, began in the Romanian territory. The first Greek books printed  in the Orthodox East were initiated by Dositheos, the patriarch of Jerusalem and came in 1680, from the print shop at Cetatuia, near Iasi. From that moment to the sixth decade of the 20th century, when militant writers like Yannis Ritsos or Rita Boumi-Pappa had editions of their works printed in Bucharest, the history of Greek printing in Romania recorded many other significant moments. As a matter of fact, editions of works by Greek scholars could be printed in Iasi, Bucharest, Vienna or other centres thanks to the notable contribution of Romanian patrons....
As painted to this point, the picture of Romanian-Hellenic relations may appear rather too idyllic and prompt one to wonder whether there has always been full harmony in this relationship. Things surely were not perfect at all times, and the path the two peoples traveled together was not a linear one. Asperities and the most trenchant reactions against Greeks were recorded in the Phanariot epoch, triggered by abuses of some representatives of that regime. But then some such discord had exited even before the advent of Phanariot rule. Discontent and protest, in various forms, from most autochthonous social classes and layers had existed as early as the 16th century. The boyars feared they would lose their positions or access to them. The donations Romanian princes made to Athos or other monasteries in areas under Turkish domination often triggered such discontent. Peasant uprisings, determined by the fiscal burden or abuse by potentates, were frequent. Both Romanian and Greek historians will have to take a new look, with the necessary detachment,  at the way the 1821 Revolution developed in the territory of Romania and the relations between Greek revolutionaries and the Romanian revolutionary movement of the same period. The proceedings related to the Zappas heirloom caused a break, between 1892 and 1896, in the Romanian-Greek diplomatic relations, which had been established in 1879. The question of the Vlachs or Aromanians also sparkled disputes that led to a temporary interruption (from 1905 to 1911) in diplomatic relations. Another hiatus occurred during the Second World War, with extensions until 1955. Nevertheless, all these blemishes  should be viewed individually, with the necessary nuances, sine ira et studio, in the given historical context. All the more so as they did not impair harmonious coexistence and the complementarity of the relationship....
The steadfast Greek presence in the territory of present-day Romania engendered, among the Romanians, sentiments that varied in intensity and tonality from one epoch to another. Throughout the 19th century, the generation of the first national historians cultivated anti-Phanariotism, a true political philosophy assimilated to anti-Greekism. Philohellenism, for its part, began to take the shape of an independent trend in Romanian culture at the beginning of the 20th century, although it had existed long before, previous centuries abounding in evidence to this effect.
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« Reply #1 on: April 13, 2009, 12:01:19 PM »

You know, you could have just asked me to split the tangent off from the other thread.

http://www.orthodoxchristianity.net/forum/index.php/topic,20712.0.html

That would have included my response though, and I guess you wanted to avoid that.


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« Reply #2 on: April 13, 2009, 12:07:53 PM »

You know, you could have just asked me to split the tangent off from the other thread.

http://www.orthodoxchristianity.net/forum/index.php/topic,20712.0.html

That would have included my response though, and I guess you wanted to avoid that.




No, I was going to post here from our exchange there, but decided not to throw more kerosine on that fire.  If you want to/can move the extraneous posts on this topic from there to here, I have no objection.

Or the link can suffice, and those interested can look.
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« Reply #3 on: April 13, 2009, 12:15:15 PM »

I see.
So you took it on yourself to cross-post your post.
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« Reply #4 on: April 13, 2009, 01:17:29 PM »

A little on the Romanian take of things:
Quote
The Bucharest school is, naturally, quite old in its first form, Slovenian, and on the side, timidly and meekly, Romanian, a language that cannot be learnt without masters if it comes to writing. This school of stewards was preserved and in front of it the learned High Steward Cantacuzino erected an imitation of the Padua University as early as the times of Prince Şerban, which became the core that inspired our Faculty of Letters, a school all the Phanariots would take care of, as well as the Romanianized Greeks and the Romanians more or less learned in the ways of the Phanar, the desk of science and of French being added, under Alexandru Ipsilanti in the second half of the 18th century. Thus the sons of the big Romanian boyars during the rule of Brâncoveanu, instead of going to study abroad on the money of their parents, felt honored to take courses at home. From them we still have a few note-books.

In that Phanariot epoch, meager in substance and very hectic and troubled, but preserving a love for imposing forms of Byzantine origin, inspired by the Istanbul of the Sultans, Bucharest life was instilled with a growing western spirit and adding to the traditions borrowed from the Orient. When the princes brought Italian and French secretaries and professors for their children, the palace of Alexandru Ipsilanti at Mihai Vodă, different from what was later called the Burnt Court, was erected by a Greek schooled in the West. And this trend became stronger and stronger without abandoning what from all times ought to have been understood as respected and acquired tradition. In 1780 there emerged the consuls with all their tasks of intervention and influence, the Austrian Agency having a post bureau for letters, newspapers and books.
Such spiritual life could be seen in the Wallachian capital in the early 19th century. For a while, before 1821, with formal Slavonism being dead and buried, local Romanian scholarship stood side by with the highfalutin Greek culture, influenced by French philosophy, also connected to the Hellenic origins that delight the new Greeks. At the time of prince Caragea the Second, a Greek nationalist there was talk of a new Hellas on Romanian land and a renewed Athens that Bucharest could represent for the “Vlacho-Hellens”.

The Haeteria revolution and the uprising of Tudor Vladimirescu, the little boyar once a Russian officer traveled to Transylvania and Vienna, with staunch memories of the Serbian revolution of Carageorge, spread the seeds of this short-lived dream. There emerged then a capital of Romanian national faith. For the success of the new credo – which, through scholars and politics of several hues in various epochs, brought us the broad and strong Romania of today – there worked the sons of boyars born in the countryside, now turned patriots, those making up the lively new army, the apprentices of Lazar and his successor, Eliad, with a printing house at Moşilor turnpike. The prince himself presided it, the noble Alexandru Ghica whose remains were to be laid at Pantelimon, while his brother, more old-fashioned, was buried in the little church of Tei, near the Colentina Palace of his princess, who had seen various foreign lands.

With prince Bibescu there opened another period in the life of Bucharest. The west prevailed with various overwhelming, commanding influences of so much use, up to the point that should never be crossed of the original national spirit. The man who wore the robe of Michael the Brave and was hallowed at Dealu, near the tomb of his glorious forerunner, tried to give a French tinge to the Sf. Sava School. Luckily, the professors of the national school put up a strong opposition, Eliad being followed by Petru Poenaru, a good connoisseur of the West who did not imitate it servility, though. Then the traces are still vivid left in our souls by fanatic Transylvanians with their craving after Rome, the common mother, to name only Aaron Florian and Laurian.

The 1858 Union moved the seat to Bucharest under a Moldavian prince who could not win over a proud society of Wallachian boyars who mixed with extreme difficulty with the Moldavians. The center of Romanian life had started to draw the hopeful eyes of Transylvania. A University was born out of the Sf. Sava School and its tendency was obviously national. But for a good period of time great professors could not be found, literary production was meager, inferior to that of Iaşi, especially in point of selection of the topics and the feel of the language.

In 1880, Iaşi, after having trained and developed many scions, was superceded by the capital that concentrated the entire political life, and also an indigenous economic life, drawing in many riches. Under this replete mixture of talents there lurks, hidden yet all-powerful, a sort of coffee-house mocking Phanariotism which, fanned by the Western spirit, takes things lightly and spreads now skepticism now base instincts.
http://www.plural-magazine.com/article_the_cultural_and_intellectual_life_of_bucharest.html

Quote
The Mission Of A Generation, 1928
by Mihail Ralea (1896-1964)
Our ancestors believed, without reserve, in Darwin, in Spencer, in Haeckel, in Comte and Marx. Those times were over when we came forth. It was believed then that civilization, made of technique, science, freedom and capitalism will be forever perfecting itself. Human happiness, in democratic freedom, in capitalist improvement, in scientific enrichment, will keep growing unimpeded.

But humankind, which has in itself an absurd and capricious demon, suddenly got fed up with so much calm and satisfaction, with such equilibrium and hope. A lot of hypochondriac critics rose then and asked for something else. A terrible storm was stirred then which messed up the elements again.

Our generation manifests its creed in two main requests: anti-scientism and the idea of order. Everywhere where a youth fights, it fights for these beliefs. Let’s examine them one by one, analyzing their meaning and value in the context of our country, if possible....

Our generation, if it feels any call at all, will have to fight the battle on the ethical grounds. It will have to fight desperately against Byzantinism, Phanariotism, slyness, skepticism and mocking joviality with which our Romanians get easily over the most tragic situations. We claim, for the honor of this people, a little of the tragic sentiment of existence and a little conscious bitterness instead of the sinister work that exhausts our energies with cheerful indifference and callous ineptness.
http://www.plural-magazine.com/article_the_mission_of_a_generation_1928.html
 Michael Ralea - (1896 - 1964), essayist, philosopher, psychologist, sociologist, diplomat, politician of the left, a professor at the University of Iasi, a member of the Romanian Academy, Director of the "Romanian Life" (from 1933).
http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mihai_Ralea
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« Reply #5 on: April 13, 2009, 01:38:55 PM »

Now, a little Bulgarian:
Quote
Smolyan
At the beginning of 19th century the village achieved great economic and cultural boom. Almost all of the interesting site and buildings date back to that period. In 1830 the first monastery school was founded. Priest Gligorko, one of the prominent defenders of Bulgarian population, lived and worked in Ustovo. This is the birthplace of some prominent Bulgarians, such as Sava Stratiev, fighter against Phanariotism and Stoyu Shishkov, a teacher, ethnographer and a man of letters. After the Liberation the entire Smolyan region remained under Turkish Rule until 1912.
http://www.picturesofbulgaria.com/article/smolyan.html
http://www.bulgarianproperties.com/Bulgaria/Smolyan.html

Quote
PERESTROIKA WITHOUT CHRIST? AN EASTERN ORTHODOX PERSPECTIVE
By S. Popov
S. Popov (Bulgarian Orthodox Church) is a lay theologian well acquainted with the situation in the Bulgarian Orthodox Church and the ecumenical movement. Popov resides in Sofia.

Christianity was introduced into Bulgaria in the third quarter of the ninth century. The decision of the then ruler Boris was motivated by his deep understanding that Bulgaria's future lies in her joining the Christian nations. He understood that his country needed a thorough restructuring with Christ. Christianization, he hoped, would transform the life of the people, the entire existence of the nation.
But things did not go that way. Christianity in Bulgaria remained throughout the centuries largely a formal matter. This was felt intuitively by the people, and the reaction was the "heretical" sect of the Bogomils. Bogomilism was a predominantly negative interpretation of Christianity. At the time of the great rebirth of spiritual life in the West, Bulgaria had long since been under the bondage of the Ottoman Empire. She missed both the Renaissance and the Reformation. Throughout the five hundred year of the period of the Turkish yoke we were condemned to fight to stay alive. When the Bulgarian national revival came (in the 19th century), it found a nation only formally Christian.
This brief historic excursion is just to show why the Christian religion of the Orthodox Church had little to do with real religion: Christian values did not penetrate Bulgaria's life to the same degree as was achieved in the Western part of Europe.
This failed to materialize in spite of the Bulgarian national revival, which took the form largely of the establishment of a Bulgarian national Church. In the 19th century a new factor intervened--the British and American missionary work in Bulgaria since the second quarter of the 19th century. It concentrated to begin with, on providing the Bulgarians with a Bible translated into the spoken language of the people.
The translation of New Testament was finished and printed by 1840. This was the work of the British and Foreign Bible Society and its agent for the Balkans, Benjamin Barker. It was he who found a reliable translators: Neofit Rilski and Konstantin Fontinov for the major part of the Old Testament.
So by 1871, the central feature of Protestantism, the Bible, was available for every Bulgarian. It's circulation was huge; several editions were distributed, as every Bulgarian family wanted to have "the Protestant Bible."
But the hopes of the missionaries for the evangelization of Bulgaria were not fulfilled. It must be emphasized that although the natural hopes of the missions were for a spreading of their respective denomination, their essential purpose was the evangelization understood as the Christianization of the Bulgarian people, the introduction of Christ's teachings so as to make them a part and parcel of the people's life. But neither took place. Why?
Various factors may have been the cause. In the first place there had been the wrong assumption that Bulgarians were already a Christian nation and that by making available a vernacular Bulgarian Bible, this would help them become more so. They were not. They were only formally Christian. The task was not that of a religious revival but of converting people to Christianity, which was even more difficult because people believed that they were already were Christian, since they had the Orthodox Church.
There was also the fact that this effort at evangelization was taking place in the middle of the 19th Century, when belief in science, in lay knowledge was gaining ground, while religion was becoming less fashionable. The young were looking towards the schools, not towards the church.

And then there is the circumstance that the Protestant missions presented the Bulgarian people with the extraordinary gift of a marvelous translation of the Bible, revised and given it its final shape by the great poet Slavejkov. The whole nation was looking for the downfall of the Phanariot Greek bishops, for the establishment of a National Church, and for political liberation. The mood of the younger generation was more or less indifferent to religion and sometimes even hostile. They had become accustomed to identifying religion with the church and the church with Orthodoxy which until recently had been largely identified with Phanariotism and "Greekness."

It should also be stated that making capital out of her position of a National Church, i.e. of a representative
of the people's national identity, the Orthodox Church in Bulgaria took a stand against the activity of the Protestant missions, accusing them of tending to alienate the Bulgarians from their own people and the faith of their fathers, a thing that could be easily believed as at the time, in the second half of the 19th century, they regarded their nation as bound together by their Orthodox religion. To become a Protestant and remain a Bulgarian seemed impossible.
http://www.georgefox.edu/academics/undergrad/departments/soc-swk/ree/Popov_Perestroika_misc_art.pdf
http://www.georgefox.edu/academics/undergrad/departments/soc-swk/ree/PETROV.html
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« Reply #6 on: April 13, 2009, 01:49:52 PM »

Btw, a good Wikipedia article:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phanariotes
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« Reply #7 on: April 13, 2009, 02:50:41 PM »

Perhaps to the heart/history of the matter, a Masters thesis "The Three Faces of the Phanariots : an inquiry into the role and motivations of the Greek nobility under Ottoman rule 1683-1821
Quote
Accordingly, the Phanariots had an anti-revolutionary tradition.  They believed that a revolution would destroy the complex network of Greek influence within the empire, and thus would jeopardize teh centruy old effort of Greco-Christian consolidation and the future hopes associated with it. Yet, their resentment as Greeks and Christians under Turkish and Muslim masters made them increasingly candidates for action against Turkish arbitrary power.  More importantly, the new found emphasis on Hellenism, in the late eighteenth century, infused into them a pride that, in time, would allow many among them to become revolutionaries.  It is with these complex aspects of their history that the thesis deals.
http://ir.lib.sfu.ca/dspace/bitstream/1892/5303/1/b14223417.pdf
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« Reply #8 on: April 13, 2009, 03:38:00 PM »

For some more context:
National Romanticism By Balázs Trencsényi, Michal Kopeček
a reader, it has a lot on the nationalism within the Ottoman Empire and outiside it.
http://books.google.com/books?id=TpPWvubBL0MC&pg=PA469&lpg=PA469&dq=phanariotism&source=bl&ots=Qd73K5A00J&sig=Ci10Kdk1ejahQdSjCYbVgFeSkKQ&hl=en&ei=mnjjSb_3CozpnQfH6tW1CQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#PPR9,M1

and another similar work:

Discourses of collective identity in Central and Southeast Europe By Balázs Trencsényi, Michal Kopeček

http://books.google.com/books?id=k5Vsjg508EYC&pg=PA326&lpg=PA326&dq=phanariotism&source=bl&ots=WAOQSgrjjT&sig=-HXmzDH_aB8ave1nyoDFtU46qUY&hl=en&ei=WY7jSYz6NIfOMp-q7JAJ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#PPP13,M1

Btw, I came across this:
The Archbishop of America told JP clergy that they would never receive a release from the JP and that in order to remain canonical they had to sign his 'declaration'.  I understood that the Russian had missions in CA? Fort Ross?  Anyway the EP is not THE canonical church in the USA.  There are others who have the right to be there.  As for bishops deciding all matters without informing their people, reduces them to Corporate Managers NOT shepherds of their flocks. 
Phanariotism is alive and well in the, well, Phanar, and in Jerusalem.  Which is not well.

So we going to replicate the scandalous situation in Jerusalem in the US, Arab faithful and a Greek hiearchy indifferent to them?

The whole situation on that thread, in that the GOA itself states, in pertinent part:
Quote
c.- The Archdiocese receives within its ranks and under its spiritual aegis and pastoral care Orthodox Christians, who either as individuals or as organized groups in Dioceses and Parishes have voluntarily come to it and which acknowledge the supreme spiritual, ecclesiastical and canonical jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. In the case of the coming to the Archdiocese of organized groups, either Orthodox or heterodox, the opinion and approval of the Ecumenical Patriarchate is required, as it exercises its ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the Orthodox in the Diaspora.
http://www.goarch.org/archdiocese/documents/charterpage/index_html
Emphasis added.
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« Reply #9 on: April 13, 2009, 05:21:22 PM »

This seems to be a pretty accurate response of my Almisry brother to Ozgeorge's question directed to me.

There are also some minor details that could be added to the above:

-Phanariotism could also mean the custom of a bishop to sell his Orthodox flock/diocese to Papal Catholics, as a phanariote that headed the diocese of Dalmatia did at the end of 18th century - the areas sold are known to produce the worst butchers among Ustasha some century and a half afterwards;

-Phanariotism should also mean the interpretation that Orthodoxy support Freedom only occasionally, thus reducing the Freedom to the Rebellion against the powers that be and teaching about Orthodoxy as a Faith of captiveness and enslavement, while exactly the opposite is true - Orthodoxy is the Freedom.

-Phanariotism should not be equated with the teaching that "union of Orthodox must be embodied in the person of a head bishop...since the principle of Unity of the Holy Trinity is also the person of the Father". This novelty probably deserve his own name, while we are yet to see if those professing it will get the name of bartholomewites, of secretariedes, or something else.
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« Reply #10 on: April 13, 2009, 06:36:35 PM »

I see.
So you took it on yourself to cross-post your post.

Isa would have seen himself as acting properly and in accordance with Forum rules  He saw that his post was off topic in the other thread and so he followed Forum instructions to create a new one rather than continue to cause division in the other thread.

"Keep Threads on Target -- For the forum-challenged, a thread is a sequence of postings, or messages, related to a primary topic.  For purposes of continuity and consistency, please keep ALL threads on target to their original purpose.  If you want to deviate, start a new thread."

http://www.orthodoxchristianity.net/forum/index.php?action=rules





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« Reply #11 on: April 13, 2009, 08:04:52 PM »

-Phanariotism should not be equated with the teaching that "union of Orthodox must be embodied in the person of a head bishop...since the principle of Unity of the Holy Trinity is also the person of the Father". This novelty probably deserve his own name, while we are yet to see if those professing it will get the name of bartholomewites, of secretariedes, or something else.

I see that on some Russian forums they are using the neologism "Otsovschina" to encapsulate the Chief Secretary's idea.  I guess that could be translated as (the theory of) Paternalism.
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« Reply #12 on: April 14, 2009, 08:26:43 AM »

Amazing. I am certain I logged into OC.net's forum this morning but I seem to have ended up on ECafe.  Roll Eyes
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"Religion is a neurobiological illness and Orthodoxy is its cure." - Fr. John S. Romanides
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« Reply #13 on: April 14, 2009, 08:35:43 AM »

Amazing. I am certain I logged into OC.net's forum this morning but I seem to have ended up on ECafe.  Roll Eyes

What is ECafe?
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