Could someone....who knows more Greek clarify on this?
In Hellenistic Greek, especially in Alexandria whence comes the LXX, parthenos
means a virgin. That's how Philo uses the word when he speaks of the Essenes and the Therapeutae (both of which were Jewish sects that practiced intentional, monastic-style virginity -- and were not, mind you, merely young girls). Hellenistic Jewish culture seems to have valued life-long virginity (quite unlike earlier forms of Judaism). So, there's little reason to think that parthenos
as it appears in the LXX means anything but virgin. Even Josephus, a Greek-speaking Jew from Jerusalem, uses it to mean "virgin."
End of story.
Could it also mean someone who is married and is a virgin?
No, not until the second or third century A.D., when it becomes basically exclusively related to virginity. All translation is contextual, but if you want to know about parthenos
over time in multiple contexts and in the abstract, then, if anything, it could mean something very different: Virtually all of the greatest poets, namely Homer, Pindar, Sophocles and Aristophanes, use parthenos
when writing about "unmarried women who are not virgins," i.e. young girls who get knocked up. There's even a special word, o parthenios
, which specifically means the son of an unmarried girl.
On the flip side, every one of those poets usually uses parthenos
to mean a maid, maiden, virgin or girl. Sophocles uses parthenos
to mean "virgin" and
"knocked up girl" in the same play! It's poetry, man.
Also on the flip side, we have perhaps the most famous usage of the word as a title for Athena, Athena Parthenos
, Athena the Virgin, since she alone among the major pantheon never engaged in sexual relations with the other gods. That's why her Temple in Athens is called the Parthenon (the one dedicated to the Virgin).