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Author Topic: Hesychast movement/Essence&Energies  (Read 3924 times) Average Rating: 0
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« on: November 24, 2007, 12:16:34 PM »

Why is St. Gregory of Palamas (1296-1359), Archbishop of Thessalonica looked down upon by the western church?  Do they feel that St. Gregory was in error in his teachings?

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« Reply #1 on: November 24, 2007, 04:59:37 PM »

Hello,

The first thing that needs to be done (for me - I've never received a full explanation) is for the Orthodox and Eastern Catholics to detail exactly what is hesychasm and Palamite theology.

We can't have a fruitful dialogue if one side doesn't know what the other side is talking about. Wink
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« Reply #2 on: November 24, 2007, 05:10:07 PM »

Hello,

The first thing that needs to be done (for me - I've never received a full explanation) is for the Orthodox and Eastern Catholics to detail exactly what is hesychasm and Palamite theology.

We can't have a fruitful dialogue if one side doesn't know what the other side is talking about. Wink

First thing is...tell us what you know (assuming you've done more than just query online fora).
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« Reply #3 on: November 24, 2007, 05:11:24 PM »

New Advent Encyclopedia on Hesychasm:
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07301a.htm

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« Reply #4 on: November 24, 2007, 05:23:10 PM »

New Advent Encyclopedia on Hesychasm:
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07301a.htm

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Not when you quote such an unbiased and balanced source Roll Eyes.
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« Reply #5 on: November 24, 2007, 05:26:12 PM »

Hello,

The first thing that needs to be done (for me - I've never received a full explanation) is for the Orthodox and Eastern Catholics to detail exactly what is hesychasm and Palamite theology.

We can't have a fruitful dialogue if one side doesn't know what the other side is talking about. Wink

From Wikipedia:

Orthodox theology holds that while humans can never know God's "Essence" and that direct experience of God would simply obliterate us (much as Moses could not survive seeing God's face), God's "Energies" can be directly experienced (as Moses could see God's back and live). These energies are considered to be uncreated in nature. The presence of the energies is not to be taken as denial of the philosophical simplicity of God. Therefore, when speaking of God, it is acceptable within Eastern Orthodoxy to speak of his energies as God.


More: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essence-Energies_distinction
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« Reply #6 on: November 24, 2007, 07:43:47 PM »

Hello,

First thing is...tell us what you know (assuming you've done more than just query online fora).
Not much if anything that I would call solid knowledge. I know what some people think about it (they don't mention what is wrong or why) and a vague notion that hesychasm has to do with a manner of prayer. I don't have a good idea what the Orthodox view as the distinction between essence/energy. I don't even know what if any official view the Catholic Church has on it.  Huh
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« Reply #7 on: November 24, 2007, 07:47:49 PM »

Hello,

From Wikipedia:

Orthodox theology holds that while humans can never know God's "Essence" and that direct experience of God would simply obliterate us (much as Moses could not survive seeing God's face), God's "Energies" can be directly experienced (as Moses could see God's back and live). These energies are considered to be uncreated in nature. The presence of the energies is not to be taken as denial of the philosophical simplicity of God. Therefore, when speaking of God, it is acceptable within Eastern Orthodoxy to speak of his energies as God.


More: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essence-Energies_distinction
Is there something a little more authoritative than wikipedia to confirm or deny this?
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« Reply #8 on: November 24, 2007, 07:58:15 PM »

Hello,
Is there something a little more authoritative than wikipedia to confirm or deny this?

Here is a website we can get our teeth into:

http://www.monachos.net/library/Gregory_Palamas:_Knowledge,_Prayer,_and_Vision
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« Reply #9 on: November 24, 2007, 08:06:44 PM »

Is there something a little more authoritative than wikipedia to confirm or deny this?

“Even since the creation of the world His eternal power and divine nature, invisible though they are, have been understood and seen through the things He has made.” [Romans 1:20]

“The essentially invisible God becomes visible by His energies. He is not visible in His essence, but in some of His characteristics.” [St. Gregory of Nyssa, De Beatitudinibus 4]


“One divinity without beginning, simple, super-essential, without parts an indivisible. For the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit are the divinity. And there is one God, the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit. For one and the same are the essence and the energy and the power of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit.” [St. Maximos the Confessor, Capita theologica 2,1]


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« Reply #10 on: November 25, 2007, 10:01:19 PM »

Hello,

I haven't forgotten about this thread. I have several articles printed out that I'll read. It's just that I'm extremely busy right now as its the run-up to finals week (2 more weeks). All of my semester projects are coming due and I still have to study for my music theory placement exam to get into the program (prayers needed!).

I'll try to respond better after I have read the articles.
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« Reply #11 on: November 25, 2007, 10:02:04 PM »

Hello,



“The essentially invisible God becomes visible by His energies. He is not visible in His essence, but in some of His characteristics.” [St. Gregory of Nyssa, De Beatitudinibus 4]


“One divinity without beginning, simple, super-essential, without parts an indivisible. For the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit are the divinity. And there is one God, the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit. For one and the same are the essence and the energy and the power of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit.” [St. Maximos the Confessor, Capita theologica 2,1]



Do you have links to these two works?
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« Reply #12 on: November 25, 2007, 10:18:06 PM »

Do you have links to these two works?
Unfortunately, no. I tend to use this archaic form of storage of knowledge called "books". Smiley
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« Reply #13 on: November 26, 2007, 12:39:30 PM »

I looked and saw this on EWTN.com's "Catholic Q&A." The Eastern Catholicism expert, Anthony Dragani, answered it:

Hesychast Prayer

Question from on 01-31-2004:
What were the West's objections to Hesychast prayer and what role, if any, can they play in a Latin Catholic's prayer life today?

Joe

Answer by Anthony Dragani on 02-20-2004:

Joe,

There were two primary objections:

1. There was a concern that it reduced mysticism to a specific "method" or "technique." In other words, there was a fear that Hesychast prayer was an attempt to develop some sort of "formula" for spiritual growth, which would neglect the truth that spirituality is about a relationship with God.

2. There was a disagreement with the theology associated with it. Hesychast prayer is very much linked to the theology of St. Gregory Palamas, who taught that God is both essence and energies. The essence of God is that which we can never know, so we experience God through his uncreated energies. Grace is another name for these energies. Thus, Hesychasm advocates the position that when we experience grace, we are experiencing God Himself. This view of grace was very different from the view advocated in much of Scholastic Theology in the West.

Today these concerns are no longer held, and the Western Church recognizes the validity and full legitimacy of Hesychast prayer. Pope John Paul II even asked Byzantine Catholic Churches to restore St. Gregory Palamas to their calendars, as many had previously removed him.

Can Hesychast prayer play a role in the life of a Latin Catholic? Absolutely! Many Roman Catholics have read the wonderful book "The Way of a Pilgrim," and now routinely say the Jesus Prayer.

God Bless, Anthony

----------------------

The EC's venerate St. Gregory Palamas.

Hesychasm is just an Eastern tradition. In the West, we have many mystical traditions of our own. (I'm going to read St. John of the Cross's Ascent of Mount Carmel soon.) I don't subscribe to the distinction between essences and energies. God is God. To each his own!
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« Reply #14 on: November 26, 2007, 06:31:25 PM »

I looked and saw this on EWTN.com's "Catholic Q&A." The Eastern Catholicism expert, Anthony Dragani, answered it:

Hesychast Prayer

Question from on 01-31-2004:
What were the West's objections to Hesychast prayer and what role, if any, can they play in a Latin Catholic's prayer life today?

Joe

Answer by Anthony Dragani on 02-20-2004:

Joe,

There were two primary objections:

1. There was a concern that it reduced mysticism to a specific "method" or "technique." In other words, there was a fear that Hesychast prayer was an attempt to develop some sort of "formula" for spiritual growth, which would neglect the truth that spirituality is about a relationship with God.

2. There was a disagreement with the theology associated with it. Hesychast prayer is very much linked to the theology of St. Gregory Palamas, who taught that God is both essence and energies. The essence of God is that which we can never know, so we experience God through his uncreated energies. Grace is another name for these energies. Thus, Hesychasm advocates the position that when we experience grace, we are experiencing God Himself. This view of grace was very different from the view advocated in much of Scholastic Theology in the West.

Today these concerns are no longer held, and the Western Church recognizes the validity and full legitimacy of Hesychast prayer. Pope John Paul II even asked Byzantine Catholic Churches to restore St. Gregory Palamas to their calendars, as many had previously removed him.

Can Hesychast prayer play a role in the life of a Latin Catholic? Absolutely! Many Roman Catholics have read the wonderful book "The Way of a Pilgrim," and now routinely say the Jesus Prayer.

God Bless, Anthony

----------------------

The EC's venerate St. Gregory Palamas.

Hesychasm is just an Eastern tradition. In the West, we have many mystical traditions of our own. (I'm going to read St. John of the Cross's Ascent of Mount Carmel soon.) I don't subscribe to the distinction between essences and energies. God is God. To each his own!

Your answer is most appreciated and now I understand this relationship as it stands today.   My question originally was in response to this very thing posted on CAF and there were those who felt that St. Gregory Palamas was on the cusp of heresy. I hold St. Gregory in high esteem and love his writings and was truly taken aback by some of the responses.

I guess the Essence&Energy issue is still up in the air?

I used to follow Anthony Dragani postings on the ByzCath.net some years back.
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« Reply #15 on: November 26, 2007, 07:29:11 PM »

I guess the Essence&Energy issue is still up in the air?

Well, in our Western theological tradition, we would not describe it that way. But contrary to popular belief we don't dogmatize everything. We haven't dogmatized Aristotle yet, so there is room for Palamism in Catholicism's Eastern expressions. I know of no council that has declared it to be heretical.
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« Reply #16 on: November 26, 2007, 08:08:09 PM »

Hello,

I have read the articles and it does explain it, but leaves me with many questions. So I guess I start asking. The first is: Do the Orthodox believe that essence/energy and hesychasm is the ONLY authentic and valid theological expression and form of prayer (or at least mystical prayer/contemplation)?
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« Reply #17 on: November 26, 2007, 08:10:18 PM »

Hello,

I looked and saw this on EWTN.com's "Catholic Q&A." The Eastern Catholicism expert, Anthony Dragani, answered it:

Hesychast Prayer

Question from on 01-31-2004:
What were the West's objections to Hesychast prayer and what role, if any, can they play in a Latin Catholic's prayer life today?

Joe

Answer by Anthony Dragani on 02-20-2004:

Joe,

There were two primary objections:

1. There was a concern that it reduced mysticism to a specific "method" or "technique." In other words, there was a fear that Hesychast prayer was an attempt to develop some sort of "formula" for spiritual growth, which would neglect the truth that spirituality is about a relationship with God.

2. There was a disagreement with the theology associated with it. Hesychast prayer is very much linked to the theology of St. Gregory Palamas, who taught that God is both essence and energies. The essence of God is that which we can never know, so we experience God through his uncreated energies. Grace is another name for these energies. Thus, Hesychasm advocates the position that when we experience grace, we are experiencing God Himself. This view of grace was very different from the view advocated in much of Scholastic Theology in the West.

Today these concerns are no longer held, and the Western Church recognizes the validity and full legitimacy of Hesychast prayer. Pope John Paul II even asked Byzantine Catholic Churches to restore St. Gregory Palamas to their calendars, as many had previously removed him.

Can Hesychast prayer play a role in the life of a Latin Catholic? Absolutely! Many Roman Catholics have read the wonderful book "The Way of a Pilgrim," and now routinely say the Jesus Prayer.

God Bless, Anthony

----------------------

The EC's venerate St. Gregory Palamas.

Hesychasm is just an Eastern tradition. In the West, we have many mystical traditions of our own. (I'm going to read St. John of the Cross's Ascent of Mount Carmel soon.) I don't subscribe to the distinction between essences and energies. God is God. To each his own!
Thanks for posting this, I was looking for something like this.

By the way - you'll love the Ascent of Mount Carmel! But be prepared to immediately go into Dark Night of the Soul (the two works are really a packaged deal Wink). I think many Orthodox would be impressed with Saint John of the Cross, Saint Teresa of Avila and Carmelite Spirituality.
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« Reply #18 on: November 26, 2007, 08:16:52 PM »

Hello,

From the article from Monachos:

Gregory, too, found place for the apophatic approach, but for a different—and important—reason: he did not see it so much as the limitations of man’s knowledge that kept him from knowing God by personal experience, but the fact that God, by nature,is unknowable.


If God is by nature unknowable, then God cannot know Himself - that means He is not God. I hold the view that humans are by our very nature incapable of truly knowing God. But, in Heaven, by the grace of God, our nature will be elevated and we will be able to enjoy the immediate vision and knowledge of God (what Catholics call the Beatific Vision) -- that is, we will know God as He is as Scripture attests to (1 John 3:2).
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« Reply #19 on: November 26, 2007, 08:22:41 PM »

Hello,

From the Monachos article:

It is interesting to note that Gregory did indeed advocate the use of a ‘psycho-somatic technique’ in the hesychast method of prayer; yet he did so not out of a conviction that this was an essential necessity (rather, he saw it principally as in aid for beginners)

From the EWTN article:

1. There was a concern that it reduced mysticism to a specific "method" or "technique." In other words, there was a fear that Hesychast prayer was an attempt to develop some sort of "formula" for spiritual growth, which would neglect the truth that spirituality is about a relationship with God.


Have the Orthodox investigated or discerned the visions of the monks to evaluate whether they are real or merely physiological reactions from the rigid regiment of postures and breathing, the likely use of psycho-somatic auto-suggestions, and/or hypnotic hallucinations? Not that there can't be the possibility of true visions, but given the circumstances of the form of hesychasm (especially given what we currently know from science) it seems prudent to fully investigate and discern this.

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« Reply #20 on: November 26, 2007, 09:00:57 PM »

Hello,

From the article from Monachos:

Gregory, too, found place for the apophatic approach, but for a different—and important—reason: he did not see it so much as the limitations of man’s knowledge that kept him from knowing God by personal experience, but the fact that God, by nature,is unknowable.


If God is by nature unknowable, then God cannot know Himself - that means He is not God. I hold the view that humans are by our very nature incapable of truly knowing God. But, in Heaven, by the grace of God, our nature will be elevated and we will be able to enjoy the immediate vision and knowledge of God (what Catholics call the Beatific Vision) -- that is, we will know God as He is as Scripture attests to (1 John 3:2).

Unknowable only in reference to us.  In other words, we cannot know Him as He knows Himself.
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« Reply #21 on: November 26, 2007, 09:19:42 PM »

Hello,

Unknowable only in reference to us.  In other words, we cannot know Him as He knows Himself.
Then it is as I said - it is not God by nature that is unknowable, but the limitations of our nature that makes God unknowable to us. But we will know Him in Heaven, as Scripture says.
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« Reply #22 on: November 27, 2007, 05:09:53 AM »

Hello,
Then it is as I said - it is not God by nature that is unknowable, but the limitations of our nature that makes God unknowable to us. But we will know Him in Heaven, as Scripture says.

Even in Heaven the blessed are still created beings.  There is an infinite gap between the uncreated and created.  If we know God as He knows Himself in Heaven, we become God in essence.  This is not Christianity, it is pantheism.  Although through the process of theosis the blessed in Heaven go from "mansion to mansion" and dive deeper into the Mystery of God, they can never plumb the depths, so to speak, because they are bottomless!
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« Reply #23 on: November 27, 2007, 09:32:45 AM »

Hello,

Even in Heaven the blessed are still created beings.  There is an infinite gap between the uncreated and created.  If we know God as He knows Himself in Heaven, we become God in essence.  This is not Christianity, it is pantheism.  Although through the process of theosis the blessed in Heaven go from "mansion to mansion" and dive deeper into the Mystery of God, they can never plumb the depths, so to speak, because they are bottomless!
We won't know Him because our nature allows it, but because by the grace of God He elevates our nature to enable it.

How do you make sense of 1 John 3:2 - Dearly beloved, we are now the sons of God: and it hath not yet appeared what we shall be. We know that when He shall appear we shall be like to Him: because we shall see Him as He is.



Here is a Catholic definition of BEATIFIC VISION:

The intuitive knowledge of God which produces heavenly beatitude. As defined by the Church, the souls of the just "see the divine essence by an intuitive vision and face to face, so that the divine essence is known immediately, showing itself plainly, clearly and openly, and not immediately through any creature" (Denzinger 1000-2). Moreover, the souls of the saints "clearly behold God, one and triune, as He is" (Denzinger 1304-6). It is called vision in the mind by analogy with bodily sight, which is the most comprehensive of human sense faculties; it is called beatific because it produces happiness in the will and the whole being. As a result of this immediate vision of God, the blessed share in the divine happiness, where the beatitude of the Trinity is (humanly speaking) the consequence of God's perfect knowledge of his infinite goodness. The beatific vision is also enjoyed by the angels, and was possessed by Christ in his human nature even while he was in his mortal life on earth. (Etym. Latin beatificus, beatific, blissful, imparting great happiness or blessedness; from beatus, happy.)
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« Reply #24 on: November 27, 2007, 03:04:56 PM »

Hello,

Do the Oriental Orthodox make the distinction between essence and energy as Saint Palamas did or follow Hesychasm?
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« Reply #25 on: November 27, 2007, 05:01:27 PM »

Why is St. Gregory of Palamas (1296-1359), Archbishop of Thessalonica looked down upon by the western church?  Do they feel that St. Gregory was in error in his teachings?


Traditional Catholics like myself have several problems with Palamas and his theology:
1) We reject the idea that God is divided into essence in energies. We believe it devolves into ditheism and prefer the Thomistic idea that God is purely simple.
2) We reject hesychast prayer in that it seems to focus on feelings, position, breathing. More based on how one feels like the Charismatic movement, which we see as very dangers.
3) We believe that in heaven, we experience the Beatific Vision. In other words, even though we cannot "know" God's essence by reason or anyother means, we can "experience" God's essence in heaven as he allows us to. As the scriptures state, "We shall see him as he is.".
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« Reply #26 on: November 27, 2007, 05:15:32 PM »

Do the Oriental Orthodox make the distinction between essence and energy as Saint Palamas did or follow Hesychasm?
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This article from Metropolitan Bishoy of the Coptic Orthodox Church may help answer..
 
Deification of Man and the Interpretation of "Partakers of the Divine Nature" (2 Pet 1:4)
http://www.metroplit-bishoy.org/english/index.htm

Just to put His Eminence in context a little.  He is Secretary to the Coptic Synod and second ranking after His Holiness Pope Shenouda.  In February this year Pope Shenouda issued his controversial statement that the unbaptized are not saved and used the Bible to prove it; Metropolitan Bishoy followed it up in March with an even more controversial statement that neither Catholics nor Protestants are saved!   The Coptic Pope was inmmediately asked by the Catholic hierarchy in Egypt to disown this statement but to date he has issued no clarification and the tapes of Metropolitan Bishoy's "All-Catholics-Are-Damned speech still sell in the cathedrals and churches of Egypt.


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« Reply #27 on: November 28, 2007, 03:19:21 AM »

Hello,

The first thing that needs to be done (for me - I've never received a full explanation) is for the Orthodox and Eastern Catholics to detail exactly what is hesychasm and Palamite theology.

We can't have a fruitful dialogue if one side doesn't know what the other side is talking about. Wink
There was a good discussion at the Byzantine forum of some of the differences between hesychastic prayer as the mysticism of the Western Church, and since you may find that discussion helpful, I have posted a portion of the url to that thread so that you can peruse it:

The thread was called "Imagination in Prayer for Catholics and Orthodox."

byzcath.org/forums/ubbthreads.php/ubb/showflat/Number/246918/Board/2/fpart/all/gonew/1#UNREAD

If you want to visit the site you will need to add "http://www" to the url.

Below is my final post in that thread:

Quote
In the text that I have quoted, St. Gregory of Sinai is referring to the sources of the mental images that the mind creates, but it is the mind (i.e., the human intellect) that is causing the distracting images, and there is nothing in the text that would indicate that these images are being forced -- by some kind of external power -- upon the man attempting to pray. Thus, as I have pointed out already, the hesychast is supposed to quiet his mind, and so he should not be trying to create mental images, whether they come from his memory or from something happening around him.

Now, let us look at the sentences that follow the phrase "within or without" in the quotation that I supplied:

"For the intellect itself naturally possesses an imaginative power," notice here that St. Gregory is focusing attention on the one praying, because it is his (the hesychast’s) "imaginative power" that is causing the distraction from true prayer, i.e., the prayer of the heart, which necessarily excludes the use of the natural power of the imagination. He then goes on to say that these mental distractions arise in those "who do not keep a strict watch over" this imaginative power, which "can easily produce, to its own hurt, whatever forms and images it wants to." Now, what -- according to St. Gregory -- is the source of the images that he is talking about? Is it some kind of “private revelation” in the modern Roman sense of the term? No, it is not; instead, it is the natural power of the human imagination, which -- to its own harm -- produces the images he is condemning. Now these distracting images are produced by internal memories of external stimuli, and that is why he describes them as "the recollection of things good or evil,” which “suddenly imprint images on the intellect's perceptive faculty and so induce it to entertain fantasies, thus making whoever this happens to a daydreamer rather than a hesychast," because he has not controlled his thoughts and emptied his mind of diastemic images in order to unite with God, who is beyond form or shape, and who dwells in utter darkness. The hesychast, to quote St. Gregory of Nyssa, is supposed to leave “behind everything that is observed, not only what sense comprehends but also what the intelligence thinks it sees,” for he must penetrate deeper and deeper into the mystery of God, until he “gains access to the invisible and the incomprehensible, and there [he] sees God, [for] this is the true knowledge of what is sought; this is the seeing that consists in not seeing, because that which is sought transcends all knowledge, being separated on all sides by incomprehensibility as by a kind of darkness.”

Clearly, the hesychast is supposed to expel all thoughts from his mind, and so he is not supposed to create images intentionally within his mind, nor is he to entertain those mental images that may arise involuntarily as a natural attempt of his intellect to comprehend the incomprehensible.

Finally, I have to say that I have never read any hesychastic text that encourages the use of mental images in prayer, but if you have read anything written by the holy hesychasts that recommends this practice, then by all means post the texts so that we can discuss them.
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« Reply #28 on: November 28, 2007, 03:54:56 AM »

Why is St. Gregory of Palamas (1296-1359), Archbishop of Thessalonica looked down upon by the western church?  Do they feel that St. Gregory was in error in his teachings?

St. Gregory Palamas is looked down upon in the West because the Roman Church has absorbed a philosophical (i.e., Aristotelian) view of divine simplicity that is ultimately not supported by the teaching of the Eastern Church Fathers. 

To be specific, the modern West tends to see the real distinction -- without a separation -- between the divine essence and the divine energies as form of ditheism, but this idea does not hold water when one actually examines the teaching of St. Gregory Palamas, because he insists that God is indivisibly divided in His many energies, while always remaining absolutely one in essence.  Moreover, if the real distinction between essence and energy in God compromises the divine simplicity as some Westerners mistakenly assert, it follows that the real distinction between the three divine hypostaseis does as well, and both East and West agree that God's tri-hypostatic nature does not involve tritheism, because each of the three hypostaseis is wholly divine, i.e., the Godhead is indivisibly divided in the three divine hypostaseis.
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"All that the Father has belongs likewise to the Son, except Causality."
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"We should believe that divine grace is present in the icon of Christ and that it communicates sanctification to those who draw near with faith."
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« Reply #29 on: November 28, 2007, 05:13:37 AM »

2) We reject hesychast prayer in that it seems to focus on feelings, position, breathing. More based on how one feels like the Charismatic movement, which we see as very dangers.

Disclaimer: I am not a hesychast.  I have no authority to speak on this subject.  YMMV.

Hesychast prayer, as far as I know, does not focus on these things.  Feelings are definitely not a part of it; there is no sentimentality here.  Breathing, body positions and the like are not done without the blessing of a spiritual father and of course are merely means to an end, the experience of God through the overcoming of delusions.

What is more dangerous, some rhythmic breathing and a downturned head, or letting the imagination run free reign to visualize Christ, angels, saints...

A more accurate understanding of Orthodox spirituality can be found at http://orthodoxmonk.blogspot.com.  It is a web-log run by an anonymous Orthodox monk.  You will not regret reading the archives.  Tolle et lege!
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« Reply #30 on: November 28, 2007, 08:22:29 AM »

Something I've wondered about:

do we receive God's energy or His essence in the Eucharist?
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« Reply #31 on: November 28, 2007, 10:56:02 AM »

Something I've wondered about:

do we receive God's energy or His essence in the Eucharist?

The sacraments (including the Eucharist) impart God's energy to man, because it is impossible to come into contact with, or to participate in, God's essence (cf. St. Basil, Letter 234; and St. Gregory Palamas, Dialogue between an Orthodox and a Barlaamite, no. 44).
« Last Edit: November 28, 2007, 10:57:52 AM by Apotheoun » Logged

"All that the Father has belongs likewise to the Son, except Causality."
St. Gregory Nazianzen

"We should believe that divine grace is present in the icon of Christ and that it communicates sanctification to those who draw near with faith."
St. Theodore Studite
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