For the 30/40/etc., it sounds like you are referring to special melodies (prosomia or samopodoben). They are usually based on one of the existing 8 even if they sound completely different to most people.
Actually, I'm referring to completely different scales that can actually be considered different tones, but aren't and are instead grouped with the others. For example, First-Second Tone, which is a melding of the two, is normally listed as a subgroup of Second, although there is a radical change. Or Plagal of the First Enharmonic, or "Phrygios", which is very different from Plagal of the First.
On a theoretical level, even systems that are thoroughly considered part of the same tone should be separated, such as Fourth Tone Eirmologic (Fast - a.k.a. Legetos), Sticheric (Medium) and Pappadic (Slow - a.k.a. Agia), each of which has different characteristic flats in it and different starting points for the scale.
Then you get into nuanced changes, such as Pentaphone First Tone, which essentially has a portion of the First Tone scale repeated above, which should be a different Tone because it doesn't even have clean octaves!