Friendly suggestion: read a thread through before posting.
Thanks! You know, 4600+ posts later and I hadn't figured it out
I don't know when each word was identified with a side.
The only direct answer to my question.
My intention in asking the questions "when/why did they start using the phrase Catholic as an identifier" and "why do we really want to be called Catholic" goes to delving into: 1) Why are we unhappy with the moniker "Orthodox" - if we hate being confused with the Jews, then adding Catholic will only make things worse; if we wish to express the universality of our faith, then Ecumenical would actually be a better word (more precedent in Greek usage, methinks) but would create even more problems; 2) ISTM that the useage of the monikers comes relatively late in Christian history, which makes me wonder if worrying about this is even worth it.
If we really want to end confusion but express catholicity, then just using the name "Orthodox Christian Church" would probably be more effective. Somehow we seem to leave out the word "Christian" in our descriptors, assuming that people will assume we're Christian; instead, it should be plastered on every sign, reinforcing that we are indeed followers of Christ (and thus have a universal scope), while carrying on the use of a descriptor that we can at least prove has been used to identify our Church since its earliest days.